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Home > Juvenile Justice Division > Publications > Publications Guide

 
 

Juvenile Justice Publications

Publications Guide

Child Welfare League of America
National Center for Program Standards and Development
Juvenile Justice Division

John A. Tuell
Director

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1: Child Welfare

Chapter 2: Delinquency Prevention and Intervention

Chapter 3: Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Data

Chapter 4: Promising Programs

Chapter 5: System Reform

For More Information

Introduction

The Juvenile Justice Division serves the overall mission of the Child Welfare League of America on behalf of children and families involved in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This is accomplished by:
  • Providing national leadership in promoting juvenile justice and child welfare systems coordination and integration.
  • Collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on child welfare and juvenile justice practices and policies that promote positive youth development.
  • Advocating for implementation of sound legislation, policies, and procedures that contribute to juvenile justice system reform and improvement and to the development of effective delinquency prevention and intervention programs and practices.
  • Promoting the development and implementation of effective community-based intervention and treatment alternatives to reduce the reliance on incarceration for accused or adjudicated delinquent youth.
  • Providing consultation, training, and technical assistance resources to implement systems integration and reform and to implement appropriate and effective responses to reduce juvenile delinquency and juvenile victimization.
This publications guide is compiled as a resource and reference to further the effort to achieve the goal articulated in the second bullet identified above. It is not intended to serve as a comprehensive literature review but rather as an abbreviated compilation of those publications that enhance the understanding of the critical importance of the connection between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. The topics among the included publications cover such areas as research on developmental pathways for young offenders, effective prevention and early intervention strategies, best practices in child welfare and juvenile justice systems, innovative system reform efforts, and the most current statistical data from several sources that frame the issues.

Many of the publications listed below may be downloaded or directly ordered by connecting to the website of the agency responsible for the publication of the document or report.

The agencies with work cited in the Publications Guide include: Much of the work in developing these documents was the result of collaborative engagements with numerous other agencies and renowned researchers and practitioners, who are properly cited within the publications.

Chapter 1

Child Welfare

Alexander, G., Curtis, P. A., & Kluger, M. P. (2000). What works in child welfare. Washington, DC: CWLA Press. 2000/0-87868-743-2/#7432     
This book is the culmination of a body of research covering what works in the field of child welfare. Quite often we know that some programs benefit the children and families served, but rarely do we know how or why they work. The book is written in a style accessible to all audiences and attempts to bridge the gap between researchers and policymakers. It is divided into six major sections: family preservation and support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and services for adolescents. Each section contains information on what works, conflicting evidence, cost effectiveness, and a summary table.
Anderson, G. R. (2000). Future challenges and opportunities in child welfare. Child Welfare. Washington, DC: CWLA Press. 2000/0-87868-601-5/#6015    
Take a look at where child welfare may go in the 21st century. With major changes in old laws and the passage of much new federal legislation affecting public welfare in general and child welfare in particular, calls for reform are coming from all quarters. This thought-provoking special issue of Child Welfare covers policy challenges, family preservation, reforming child protective services, the future of residential group care, necessary shifts for child welfare, and child welfare education and training.
Maxfield, M. G., & Widom, C. S. (2001, March). An update on the "cycle of violence." Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. 8 pp. NIJ 184894. FREE.
This National Institute of Justice Research in Brief updates the results of a longitudinal study that compared the arrest records of abused and/or neglected children with arrest records of children who were not abused or maltreated. Initial results were gathered in 1988, when the average age of subjects was 26 years, and showed that childhood abuse and neglect increased the odds of future delinquency and adult criminality by 29%. Data on the same subjects six years later showed increases of 59% for arrest as a juvenile, 28% for arrest as an adult, and 30% for arrest for a violent crime. Findings are detailed by gender, age, race, type of arrest, type of abuse, and juvenile record. This bulletin builds on Widom's earlier works on this issue (Widom, C. S. [1992], The Cycle of Violence and [1996] The Cycle of Violence Revisited, Research in Brief, Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice).
Reynolds, A. J., Walberg, H. J., & Weissberg, R. P. (1999). Promoting positive outcomes in children and youth: Issues in children's and families lives. Washington, DC: CWLA Press. 1999/0-87868-759-9/#7599     
This book can help anyone concerned about children and youths understand the challenges they face and identify promising solutions. The first volume in this series focuses on such topics as child development, early childhood education, parent involvement, school-family partnerships, drug abuse, safety, peer and community influences, literacy, and school-to-work transitions. The chapters describe interventions that enhance the prospects of children and youths from early childhood to the beginning of adulthood.
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2000, May). Children as victims [Bulletin]. Washington, DC: Author. 24 pp. NCJ 180753. FREE.
This bulletin presents an overview of statistics on juveniles as victims of crime and maltreatment. It examines recent trends in violent crime against children and youth (murder, assault, and sexual assault) and in child abuse and neglect, analyzes patterns of victimization, and also summarizes data on missing children. The bulletin notes that juveniles are twice as likely as adults to be victims of serious violent crime and that children with a history of maltreatment are at increased risk for delinquency. The bulletin is part of the 1999 National Report Series. Each bulletin in the series highlights selected themes at the forefront of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections (including selected graphs and tables).

Chapter 2

Delinquency Prevention and Intervention

Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., Thornberry, T. P., & Cothern, L. (2000, November). Co-occurrence of delinquency and other problem behaviors [Youth Development Series bulletin]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 8 pp. NCJ 182211. FREE.
Provides information on the extent of overlap between delinquency and other problem behaviors. Using data from the first three years of the Office on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency, this Youth Development Series bulletin examines the co-occurrence of serious delinquency with specific problem areas: school behavior, drug use, mental health, and combinations of these behaviors. Preliminary findings show that a large proportion of serious delinquents are not involved in persistent drug use, nor do they have persistent school or mental health problems; that the problem that co-occurs most frequently with serious delinquency is drug use; and that, for males, as the number of problem behaviors other than delinquency increases, so does the likelihood that an individual will be a serious delinquent.
James, D. W. (Ed.) with Jurich, S. (1999). MORE things that DO make a difference for youth: A compendium of evaluations of youth programs and practices (Vol. 2). Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum.
In 1997 and 1999, the American Youth Policy Forum produced two volumes of short, readable summaries of youth program and practice evaluations: Some Things DO Make a Difference for Youth (with support of The Commonwealth Fund) and MORE Things That DO Make a Difference for Youth (with production and dissemination support from Lilly Endowment, the Commonwealth Fund, General Electric Fund, the James Irvine Foundation, and the William T. Grant Foundation). Each volume contains nearly 50 evaluation summaries. Analysis of these volumes led to the development of a list of basic principles of effectiveness for youth programming and practice. These include: quality of implementation, caring and knowledgeable adults, high standards and expectations, parent/guardian participation, community involvement, holistic approaches, youth as resources/community service and service learning, work-based learning, long-term services, supports, and follow-up.
Lipsey, M. W., Wilson, D. B., & Cothern, L. (2000, April). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders [Bulletin]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 8 pp. NCJ 181201. FREE.
This bulletin presents the results of a meta-analysis (a systematic synthesis of quantitative research results) that posed two questions: (1) Can intervention programs reduce recidivism rates among serious delinquents? and (2) If so, what types of programs are most effective? This bulletin describes the procedures used to select studies for the meta-analysis, presents the methods of analysis used to answer the above questions, and then discusses effective interventions for noninstitutionalized and institutionalized juvenile offenders.
McCord, W., & Crowell. (Eds.). (2001). Juvenile crime, juvenile justice. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control; Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families. 348 pp.
The Panel on Juvenile Crime was asked to identify and analyze the full range of research studies and data sets that bear on the nature of juvenile crime, highlighting key issues and data sources that can provide evidence of prevalence and seriousness; race, gender, and class bias in the juvenile justice system; and impacts of deterrence, punishment, and prevention strategies. The work also involved efforts to analyze the factors that contribute to delinquent behavior, including a review of the knowledge on child and adolescent development and its implications for prevention and control; to assess the current practices of the juvenile justice system, including the implementation of constitutional safeguards; to examine adjudication, detention, and waiver practices; to explore the role of community and institutional settings; to assess the quality of data sources on the clients of both public and private juvenile justice facilities; and to assess the impact of the deinstitutionalization of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, as amended, on delinquency and community safety. This extensive body of work is captured in this book.
Wasserman, G. A., Miller, L. S., & Cothern, L. (2000, April). Prevention of serious and violent juvenile offending [Serious and Violent Juvenile bulletin]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 16 pp. NCJ 178898. FREE.
This Serious and Violent Juvenile bulletin describes some developmental precursors to serious and violent juvenile offending and outlines effective approaches to prevention of such offending. It describes family-, parent-, and child-focused prevention programs and offers examples of well-designed intervention programs. The bulletin is based on work by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, which spent two years analyzing data collected by long-term studies of juvenile violence.
Wiebush, R., Freitag, R., & Baird, C. (2001, July). Preventing delinquency through improved child protection services [Bulletin]. July 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 20 pp. NCJ 187759. FREE.
Reviews research on the link between childhood maltreatment and juvenile and adult offending. As set forth in this Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) bulletin, such research indicates that the prevalence of child abuse or neglect among delinquent offenders is substantially greater than it is among the general population. Moreover, maltreated children are significantly more likely to become involved in delinquent behavior than their nonmaltreated peers, and delinquent youth with a history of abuse or neglect are more likely to continue their offending behavior than delinquents who have not suffered child abuse or neglect. Given the links between child maltreatment and juvenile offending, the design and implementation of programs to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment are promising-though often overlooked-strategies for preventing delinquency. In addition to discussing research, the authors of this bulletin review OJJDP's Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders and examine the role that child protective services' prevention efforts can play in delinquency prevention and intervention.

Chapter 3

Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Data

Annie E. Casey Foundation. KIDS COUNT, 2001 data book. (2001, June). Baltimore: Author. Available from: www.aecf.org
The KIDS COUNT, 2001 Data Book shows that 7 of the 10 indicators used to measure child well-being improved during the 1990s, but there are still 16 million kids living in working-poor families. The broad array of data we present each year in the KIDS COUNT Data Book is intended to illuminate the status of America's children and to assess trends in their well-being. The annual presentation of KIDS COUNT data allows us to make incremental improvements as new data become available and methods are refined. The measures shown are a combination of outcomes and risk factors. Although conceptually there are distinctions to be made between outcomes and risk factors, for our purposes it is sufficient to note that all of the measures used to rank states are closely associated with problems for kids-either directly or indirectly. The 10 indicators used to rank states reflect a developmental perspective on childhood and underscore the goal to provide a world where pregnant women and newborns thrive, infants and young children receive the support they need to enter school prepared to learn, children succeed in school, adolescents choose healthy behaviors, and young people experience a successful transition into adulthood.
Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2001, May). Child abuse reported to the police [Bulletin]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 8 pp. NCJ187238. FREE.
Describes the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and its role in depicting police experience with child abuse and reports key findings derived from NIBRS data. Child abuse is commonly regarded as a child welfare problem, and a considerable amount of information has been amassed from this perspective. When a child is assaulted, however, it is not only a child welfare problem, it is a crime, and yet there is a lack of law enforcement data available for researchers to analyze. Use of NIBRS, which collects detailed data about crime and its victims, should help fill this gap. This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Crimes Against Children Series bulletin also offers an informative comparison of NIBRS and child welfare system data and discusses the policy implications arising from NIBRS data.
Juvenile arrests 1999 [Bulletin]. (2000, December). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 12 pp. NCJ 185236. FREE.
Provides a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data reported in the FBI's October 2000 report, Crime in the United States, 1999. After peaking in 1994, juvenile violent crime arrests, which had increased substantially since the late 1980s, declined dramatically. The juvenile arrest rate for violent crime in 1999 was 36% below its peak in 1994. From 1993 to 1999, the juvenile arrest rate for murder decreased 68% to its lowest level since the 1960s. The number of juvenile arrests has declined in every violent crime category despite an 8% growth in the juvenile population from 1993 to 1999.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Administration for Children and Families; Administration on Children, Youth and Families; Children's Bureau. Child maltreatment 1999: Reports from the states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. (2001, May). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
This report presents annual national data about child abuse and neglect known to child protective services agencies in the United States in calendar year 1999. The data have been collected and analyzed through the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, which is sponsored by the Children's Bureau; Administration on Children, Youth and Families; Administration for Children and Families; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2001, July). America's children: Key national indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Developed by the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, this is the fifth annual synthesis of information on the status of the nation's most valuable resource, our children. This report presents the 24 key indicators of the well-being of children. These indicators are monitored through official federal statistics covering children's economic security, health, behavior and social environment, and education. The report also presents data on eight key contextual measures and includes two indicators as special features: asthma prevalence and youth employment. The 20 agencies of the Forum have also introduced improvements in the measurement of several of the indicators presented last year.

Chapter 4

Promising Programs

Armstrong, M. L. (1998, May). Adolescent pathways: Exploring the intersections between child welfare and juvenile justice, PINS, and mental health. New York: Vera Institute of Justice. 34 pp. Available from: www.vera.org
In 1997, the Vera Institute of Justice began collaboration with the Administration for Children's Services (ACS) to study the flow of adolescents into ACS care through other government systems. Specifically, ACS was concerned with youth entering care through the juvenile justice, mental health, and persons in need of supervision (PINS) systems. Vera worked with staff at ACS and several other local and state agencies to map the movement of juveniles between these agencies and to estimate the numbers moving along each pathway. In most cases, no precise measurement was possible, but a combination of agency data, interviews, observation, and original data collection produced some reasonable estimates. The analysis reveals a large number of youth moving between these government agencies, but not always in the expected patterns. The study also documents pathways that are well known to people in the agencies but have not previously been measured. Finally, the study documents a lack of mutual understanding and cooperation between the agencies. The result is overuse of ACS placements in some situations and underuse in others. In addition, the analysis identifies duplication of services, unnecessary transaction costs, and poor results for some of the most troubled adolescents in the city's care. The report recommends strengthening interagency partnerships in three specific areas.
Mihalic, S., Irwin, K., Elliott, D., Fagan, A., & Hansen, D. (2001, July). Blueprints for violence prevention [Bulletin]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 16 pp. NCJ87079. FREE.
Provides information on violence prevention and intervention programs that have been proven to be effective in reducing adolescent violent crime, aggressive delinquency, and substance abuse and predelinquent aggression and conduct disorders. This bulletin describes the criteria established by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (CSPV) to designate these model programs as part of CSPV's Blueprints for Violence Prevention Initiative. The most significant criterion used is evidence of a program's deterrent effect when using a strong research design; a program's sustained effect and multiple site replication are also necessary criteria. The bulletin outlines the 11 model programs that have met these rigorous standards, provides contact information, and discusses replication and funding resources.
Wiig, J. K., & Lahti-Johnson, K. (1998, March). Delinquents under 10 in Hennepin County: A research update and program progress report. St. Paul, MN: Amherst Wilder Foundation, Wilder Research Center. 26 pp.
In 1995, in response to an increase in the number of police reports describing children younger than age 10 who had committed delinquent acts, the Hennepin County Attorney's Office in Minnesota received funding from the Minnesota legislature to research this troubling trend and explore strategies for preventing delinquency among the very young offenders. In December of that same year, the Hennepin County Attorney's Office published the findings of a comprehensive survey of the characteristics of delinquents younger than age 10 in the county. This report documented the high correlation of delinquent behavior with child protection reports, problems with school attendance, and criminal activity of older siblings and parents. Targeted early intervention is an intensive, long-term intervention for children whose delinquent behaviors while younger than 10, in conjunction with other risk factors, place them at high risk for future delinquency. The model aims for the following long-term outcomes: reduction in delinquent behavior; reduction in exposure to abuse, neglect, and violence in the home; school success; and social competency. The model has two key components: (a) the integration of county service delivery and partnership with community-based agencies, and (b) a holistic approach to work with the family to support the child's achievement of the aforementioned long-term objectives. This current release updates those findings and focuses on the continued work of the targeted early intervention program.

Chapter 5

System Reform

Kracke, K. (2001, May). The "Green Book" demonstration [Fact sheet]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 2 pp. FS 200121. FREE.
Provides information on an integrated approach to family violence. The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ) established an advisory committee to develop recommendations to help communities seeking to improve their responses to families experiencing both domestic violence and child maltreatment. NCJFCJ published these recommendations in Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice, which is referred to as the "Green Book." The guidelines serve as a framework for the federal interagency demonstration project, Collaborations to Address Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment, which is described in this fact sheet.
Mendel, R. A. (2001, June). LESS COST, MORE SAFETY: Guiding lights for reform in juvenile justice. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum.
Documenting the impressive records of eight break-the-mold juvenile justice initiatives, LESS COST, MORE SAFETY: Guiding Lights for Reform in Juvenile Justice, a new report by the American Youth Policy Forum, provides compelling evidence that greater success against adolescent crime is within reach and available for less money than we spend currently. Serving youth in California, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin, the initiatives profiled show that quality intervention programs-not transfers to adult courts and correctional systems, or misdirected juvenile programs-reduce delinquency, ease overcrowding in juvenile detention and corrections facilities, divert delinquent youth from criminal careers, and reduce reliance on expensive "residential treatment" programs for disturbed and delinquent teens. Most important, these programs are making communities safer and saving taxpayers millions of dollars. "Contrary to popular perceptions, we really do know how to reduce the criminality of troubled adolescents," said Richard A. Mendel, author of the report. "In fact, we're already doing it in these eight sites plus many others. Best of all, the successful methods are far more cost-effective than today's common practices. The lesson from these programs is that we must overcome public skepticism that anything can be done with troubled kids, and then start putting our knowledge of what works into widespread practice." This is a follow-up to LESS HYPE, MORE HELP: Reducing Crime, What Works-and What Doesn't (2000).
Mentaberry, M. (1999, January). Model courts serve abused and neglected children [Fact sheet]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 2 pp. FS 9990. FREE.
Presents information on the model courts initiative, a collaboration between the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ) and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This initiative is a nationwide effort to improve how courts handle child abuse and neglect cases; it is helping children spend less time in foster care and resulting in earlier resolution of cases in dependency courts. NCJFCJ's Permanency Planning for Children department currently oversees 17 model courts in 16 states. These model court jurisdictions have implemented a variety of programs that can be easily replicated by other courts.
Oldenettel, D., & Wordes, M. (2000, March). The community assessment center concept [Bulletin]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 12 pp. NCJ 178942. FREE.
Informs juvenile justice practitioners and other youth service providers about the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) work in developing and demonstrating a community assessment center (CAC) model. This OJJDP bulletin increases awareness about some of the challenges associated with implementing the model and describes the experiences of four communities (Denver and Jefferson County, CO, and Lee County and Orlando, FL) selected to be part of OJJDP's CAC demonstration effort. OJJDP's CAC model has four key elements that, when implemented properly, have the potential to positively impact the lives of youth and divert them from the path of serious, violent, and chronic delinquency: single point of entry, immediate and comprehensive assessments, management information systems, and integrated case management.
U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000, November). Safe from the start: Taking action on children exposed to violence [Summary]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 76 pp. NCJ 182789. FREE.
Presents an action plan for addressing the problem of children's exposure to violence. This summary is based on ideas discussed by 150 practitioners and policymakers at the National Summit on Children Exposed to Violence, convened in June 1999 by the U.S. Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services. The summary provides a framework for understanding and addressing the problem (including selected statistics), identifies eight key operating principles agreed upon by summit participants, and presents specific action steps for each principle. It also includes descriptions of model programs and lists of resources.
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1997, August). In the wake of childhood maltreatment [Juvenile Justice bulletin, Youth Development Series]. Washington, DC: Author. NCJ165257. FREE.
The victimization of the weak by the strong-in this case, of children by adults-is one of the most shameful constants in human history. Because countless cases of suspected child abuse and neglect remain unreported, the actual number of abused and neglected children is unknown. What is known, however, is that maltreatment in childhood increases the risk of problems in adolescence, including juvenile delinquency, drug use, poor performance in school, teen pregnancy, and emotional and mental health disorders. In the Wake of Childhood Maltreatment explores the connections between childhood maltreatment and subsequent problem behaviors. The findings of the Rochester Youth Development Study reported in this bulletin are particularly valuable because they come from a general population sample, which allowed the researchers to examine how maltreated youth differ from the general adolescent population. The study results provide helpful insights into the cost survivors of childhood maltreatment often pay-a cost that is always too high.
Youth Law Center. (2001). Building blocks for youth: Protecting minority youth in the juvenile justice system. Available from: www.buildingblocksforyouth.org
A requirement of any effective juvenile justice system is treating every youth offender as an individual and providing all with necessary services. There are troubling indications that the U.S. juvenile justice system is not meeting this standard, as evidenced by overrepresentation of minorities within every aspect of the system, with particular regard to secure confinement. Increasingly punitive changes to the juvenile justice system are being made despite crime data from the U.S. Department of Justice that show a decline in youth crime for the sixth consecutive year. In response, the Building Blocks for Youth initiative of the Youth Law Center has developed a national campaign that includes: researching juvenile justice policies, analyzing decisionmaking in the field, advocating for minority youth in the system, building a constituency for change, and focusing on public education. The work has resulted in three published reports. These include: The Color of Justice: An Analysis of Juvenile Adult Court Transfers in California (M. Males, & D. Macallair, Justice Policy Institute), And Justice for Some (E. Poe-Yamagata, & M. A. Jones, National Council on Crime and Delinquency), and Youth Crime/Adult Time, Is Justice Served? (J. Juskiewicz, Pretrial Services Resource Center).

For More Information

If you would like to know more about the Juvenile Justice Division of CWLA and its work, please contact:

John A. Tuell, Director: jtuell@cwla.org

CWLA Program Office
2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 250
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone: 703/412-2400
Fax: 703/412-2401


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