Juvenile Justice Division: Other Links and Resources
The Link Between Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare
- Click on CWLA NDAS above.
- Click on the "ACCESS THE DATA" link in the "DATA & STATSTICS" green box.
- CLICK on the "Juvenile Justice" link (on the left of the page).
- Click on the "Juvenile Justice & Child Welfare" link that appears beneath Juvenile Justice folder.
- Click on "Relationship Between Juvenile Justice Data and Child Welfare Data."
- Select options desired and click "Create Table."
- Evidence of a Link Between Maltreatment and Delinquency: A Literature Review
This literature review examines research that addresses a link between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency to examine methodological and research design differences that may have resulted in a difference of outcomes between studies. The review concludes a complex relationship exists between maltreatment and delinquency that may be influenced by many additional factors. It also reminds the reader that although there is a link, many children who are maltreated never enter the criminal system, and the key may be to decide what factors or interventions will help protect these youth from delinquency.
Girls in Juvenile Justice
Pace Center for Girls
PACE Center for Girls focuses on quality, gender-responsive, school-based programs for at-risk girls that produce life-changing opportunities. PACE has 19 direct care locations in Florida that have consistently exceeded outcome goals and achieved the highest quality assurance ratings. For more than 15 years, PACE has advocated for the systemic changes needed within juvenile justice to more effectively assist girls. PACE offers training and technical assistance that helps providers produce gender responsive programs or systems designed to assist girls at risk or involved in the juvenile justice system.
Blueprints for Violence Prevention
Blueprints for Violence Prevention sets a gold standard for implementing exemplary, research-based violence and drug programs--and for implementing these programs with fidelity to the models. The work being conducted will help bridge the gap between knowledge (research) and practice and inform the users of programs of the barriers that must be overcome to achieve maximum success.
Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program
The Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency (Causes and Correlates) comprises three coordinated longitudinal projects: the Denver Youth Survey, directed by David Huizinga at the University of Colorado; the Pittsburgh Youth Study, directed by Rolf Loeber, Magda Stouthamer-Loeber, and David Farrington at the University of Pittsburgh; and the Rochester Youth Development Study, directed by Terence P. Thornberry at the University at Albany, State University of New York. Initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), the Causes and Correlates projects are designed to improve the understanding of serious delinquency, violence, and drug use by examining how youth develop within the context of family, school, peers, and community.
Juvenile Mentoring Program
The Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP) supports one-to-one mentoring projects for youth at risk of failing in school, dropping out of school, or becoming involved in delinquent behavior, including gang activity and substance abuse. Part G of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, as amended, authorizes OJJDP to fund JUMP. To date, Congress has appropriated more than $56 million for this program. Through JUMP, Congress also has acknowledged the value of collaboration between local educational agencies (LEAs) and community-based organizations in both public and private for profit or nonprofit and tribal nations to implement mentoring programs for at-risk youth.
Maryland Youth Strategies Initiative (PDF file; requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)
Maryland is promoting systems change to improve the way in which prevention and youth programs are strategically planned, funded, and delivered. The state embarked upon two distinct but related efforts. The first was aimed at developing and implementing a statewide prevention strategy. The second, the Youth Strategies Consolidated Grant, combined multiple funding streams to empower communities to coordinate services and programs for children and youth into a research-based, data-driven continuum of care.
National Youth Network
The National Youth Network consists of diverse youth leaders from across the nation who are sponsored by youth serving organizations. The network's goal is to recognize and build upon the power and importance of youth leadership by uniting young people and adults, through communication and action, to enable youth organizations and nonaffiliated youth to have a positive, formidable impact in our communities and throughout our nation
Targeted Community Action Planning (TCAP)
Since 1995, OJJDP has been supporting local comprehensive strategic planning in several states by providing long-term training and technical assistance. Using this experience and information gathered through the National Process Evaluation, OJJDP is developing TCAP, an effort that will focus on results, not process. TCAP will help communities assess their juvenile justice and delinquency prevention needs and help them develop a targeted community response to the most critical issues identified by community leaders.
Targeted Early Intervention (PDF file; requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)
In 1995, in response to an increase in the number of police reports describing children under age 10 who had committed delinquent acts, the Hennepin County (Minneapolis) Attorney's Office received funding from the Minnesota State Legislature to research this troubling trend and to explore strategies for preventing delinquency among young children. In December 1995, the Hennepin County Attorney's Office published the findings of a comprehensive survey of the characteristics of delinquents under age 10 in Hennepin County. This report documented the high correlation of delinquent behavior with child protection reports, problems with school attendance, and criminal activity of older siblings and parents.
Drugs and Alcohol
- Drug-Free Communities Support Program
The Drug-Free Communities Support Program is directed by the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, in partnership with OJJDP. This antidrug program provides grants of up to $100,000 to community coalitions that mobilize the community to prevent youth alcohol, tobacco, illicit drug, and inhalant abuse. The grants support coalitions of youth; parents; media; law enforcement; school officials; faith-based organizations; fraternal organizations; state, local, and tribal government agencies; health care professionals; and other community representatives. The Drug-Free Communities Support Program enables the coalitions to strengthen their coordination and prevention efforts, encourage citizen participation in substance abuse reduction efforts, and disseminate information about effective programs.
- Strengthening America's Families Project
OJJDP, in collaboration with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is pleased to provide the results of the 1999 search for best-practice family strengthening programs. Information as well as direct links to individual program websites can be found on the Strengthening America's Families website.
- Youth Crime Watch of America
The Youth Crime Watch program offers a variety of components based on their "Watch Out, Help Out" philosophy. YCWA sites can adopt one or all of these components depending upon their unique situation--Crime Reporting; Youth Patrols; Drug, Crime, and Violence Education; Bus Safety, Mentoring, and Conflict Resolution; Mediation; Peer and Cross-Age Teaching; and Action Projects.
- The Center for the Promotion of Mental Health in Juvenile Justice
The center is dedicated to providing expert guidance to juvenile justice settings regarding best practices for mental health assessment and referral. The Center and its collaborators promote efficient means for comprehensive, reliable mental health assessment. It helps juvenile justice programs determine how to implement these procedures and map appropriate mental health services onto them. The center develops products to move information and knowledge between the fields of juvenile justice and mental health, and it provides recommendations for practice.
- Wraparound Milwaukee
The mission of Wraparound Milwaukee is to provide cost effective, comprehensive, individualized care to complex needs children and their families in Milwaukee County. Wraparound Milwaukee is designed as a unique type of health maintenance organization that promotes collaboration among child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education in the treatment of children with serious emotional, mental health, and behavioral challenges. It engages families as equal partners in the care of their children and is designed to provide community-based alternatives to residential treatment and psychiatric hospitalization.
Disproportionate Minority Confinement
For more than a decade, OJJDP has been a leader in efforts to reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in the nation's juvenile justice system. Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC), or the overrepresentation of minority youth in juvenile detention and correctional facilities, is the most visible manifestation of this problem, which occurs at all points in the juvenile justice process.
The 1988 amendments to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) require states participating in OJJDP's formula grants program to make efforts to reduce the proportion of minority youth in secure facilities if that proportion exceeds the proportion the minority represents in the general population. As part of this requirement, states must identify the extent to which DMC exists, assess the reasons, and intervene to reduce it.
In 1992, addressing DMC was elevated to a core requirement of the JJDPA. States that fail to demonstrate efforts to reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in confinement risk not receiving 25% of their annual formula grants allocation. The DMC website is a resource to help states comply with JJDPA's DMC requirements and a source of information for all who are interested in understanding and reducing the extent of DMC.
High/Scope Perry Preschool Project
This study--perhaps the most well-known of all High/Scope research efforts--examines the lives of 123 African Americans born in poverty and at high risk of failing in school. From 1962 to 1967, at ages 3 and 4, the subjects were randomly divided into a program group that received a high-quality preschool program based on High/Scope's active learning approach, and a comparison group that received no preschool program. In the study's most recent phase, 95% of the original study participants were interviewed at age 27. Additional data were gathered from the subjects' school, social services, and arrest records.
Youth in the Juvenile Justice System
- Balanced and Restorative Justice Project
The Balanced and Restorative Justice model provides an effective framework for developing responsive juvenile justice systems. Restorative justice, as a guiding philosophical paradigm, promotes maximum involvement of the victim, offender, and the community in the justice process. The Balanced Approach, as a concrete mission, allows juvenile justice systems and agencies to improve their capacity to ensure community protection and accountability of the offender and the system. It also enables the offender to become a more competent and productive citizen.
- Building Blocks for Youth
Building Blocks for Youth is an alliance of children's advocates, researchers, law enforcement professionals, and community organizers that seeks to protect minority youth in the justice system and promote rational and effective justice policies.
The partners in the initiative include
- Detention Reform Initiative, Multnomah County, Oregon
Multnomah County has a commitment to preserving public safety through the implementation of a variety of policy reforms directed at fairness, common sense, fiscal responsibility, and the well-being of youth. Together, these strategies have resulted in a consistent drop in detention admissions and an increase in the number of youth served by alternative programs, at the same time improving failure-to-appear and reoffense rates. They have made progress in the areas of reducing minority overrepresentation in their secure custody facility and improving case processing time. Additionally, they have created systems for collecting and analyzing data for use by local decisionmakers.
- Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Program
The Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) program is administered by OJJDP. Through JAIBG, funds are provided as block grants to states that have implemented, or are considering implementing legislation or programs promoting greater accountability in the juvenile justice system.
- Michigan's JJOLT (Juvenile Justice Online Technology)
In 2001, Michigan and its Family Independence Agency (FIA) created a collaborative initiative to provide better care and services to the juvenile justice population under its supervision. As a result of this collaborative effort, Michigan has invested in the Juvenile Justice Online Technology system. JJOLT is a comprehensive, secured, management information system that allows access to critical data in order to provide services for youth involved in the multiple systems.
- Project Confirm (Vera Institute of Justice)
When teenagers are arrested in cities across the United States, police, probation officers, and judges rely on their parents to show up at the police station or courthouse and take them home. But when adolescents in foster care are arrested, often no one shows up, and they end up in detention.
For the first time anywhere, Vera quantified the inadvertent bias against foster children that judges and other practitioners had long suspected. The Institute then designed and tested Project Confirm, a relatively simple intervention that largely remedied this injustice in New York City.
- Reclaiming Futures
Promoting new standards of care within the juvenile justice system, developing judicial and community leadership, offering training and technical assistance for creating coordinated systems of comprehensive care, and disseminating research findings, the goal of Reclaiming Futures is to reinvent the way courts, police, detention facilities, and communities address the needs of substance-abusing juvenile offenders. To accomplish this, Reclaiming Futures has awarded grants to 11 communities to develop and implement new models for comprehensive care networks that figure out how treatment, judicial, and social services can work together to meet this urgent need. The program builds on what it has learned, brings new resources to the challenge of affecting systemic change, and works toward the vision of a juvenile system that reclaims youth, increases accountability, engages families, and adopts comprehensive community-care approaches.
- All Children Excel
Ramsey County's All Children Excel (ACE) program is designed to reach very young (6-9 years old) children who are at highest risk of becoming serious chronic, violent offenders. The goals of this very early intervention are to reduce risk factors in the child's life and to promote healthy behaviors. This includes reducing aggressive and delinquent behaviors, increasing school success, improving social skills, and encouraging stable relationships with caring adults. St. Paul Youth Service case managers commit to working with these children and their families until the child turns 18 years of age.
- National Center on Education, Disability, and Juvenile Justice
The National Center on Education, Disability, and Juvenile Justice (EDJJ) examines the overrepresentation of youth with disabilities at risk for contact with the courts or already involved in the juvenile delinquency system. EDJJ provides professional development and technical assistance, conducts research, and disseminates resources in three areas of national significance: prevention of school failure and delinquency, education and special education for detained and committed youth, and transition services for youth returning to schools and communities.
- Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (Section 206) establishes the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention as an independent body within the executive branch of the federal government. The council's primary functions are to coordinate all federal juvenile delinquency prevention programs, all federal programs and activities that detain or care for unaccompanied juveniles, and all federal programs relating to missing and exploited children.
- National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth
A national training and technical assistance center developed as a cooperative agreement between OJJDP and the Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, the center provides states, territories, and the District of Columbia with information and assistance in managing adolescent sex offenders and children with sexual behavior problems.
- Nurse-Family Partnership
(Formerly Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses) Guided by a strong theoretical orientation, the Nurse-Family Partnership consists of intensive, comprehensive home visitation by nurses during a woman's pregnancy and the first two years after the birth of the woman's first child. Although the primary mode of service delivery is home visitation, the program depends on a variety of other health and human services to achieve its positive effects.
- Partnerships for Success
In 1998, Ohio was chosen as one of the five original participants in the OJJDP's Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders Initiative. The early successes of Ohio's Comprehensive Strategy counties led state leaders to invest in a new generation model, Partnerships for Success (PfS), sponsored by the Ohio Family and Children First Cabinet Council. State-level leadership for the PfS Initiative is provided by Hope Taft, First Lady of Ohio, Geno Natalucci-Persichetti, Director of the Ohio Department of Youth Services, and Michael Hogan, Director of the Ohio Department of Mental Health. The Department of Youth Services serves as the lead agency responsible for the administration and oversight of the PfS initiative.
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