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Home > Advocacy > State Fact Sheets for 2009 > Pennsylvania

 
 

PENNSYLVANIA'S CHILDREN 2009

Pennsylvania's Children At a Glance

 
 State Population. 1  12,432,792 
 Population, Children Under 18. 2  2,786,719 
 State Poverty Rate. 3  10.4% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 18. 4  14.8% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Ages 5-17. 5  14.3% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 5. 6  15.5% 
All statistics are for 2007.

CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

  • In 2006, 4,177 children were substantiated or indicated as abused or neglected in Pennsylvania, a rate of 1.5 per 1,000 children, representing a 4.0% decrease from 2005. Of these children, 146 were neglected, 1,420 were physically abused, and 2,525 were sexually abused. 7
  • In 2006, 33 children in Pennsylvania died as a result of abuse or neglect. 8
  • In 2006, 21,135 children in Pennsylvania lived apart from their families in outof- home care, compared with 21,691 children in 2005. In 2006, 28.4% of the children living apart from their families were age 5 or younger, and 26.8% were 16 or older. 9
  • Of Pennsylvania children in out-of-home care in 2006, 40.5% were white, 46.1% black, 8.9% Hispanic, 0.2% American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 4.3% children of other races and ethnicities. 10

ADOPTION, KINSHIPCARE, AND PERMANENT FAMILIES FOR CHILDREN

  • Of the 13,307 children exiting out-of-home care in Pennsylvania in 2006, 55% were reunited with their parents or other family members. 11
  • In 2006, 1,926 children were legally adopted through the public child welfare agency in Pennsylvania, a 7% decrease from 2,065 in 2005. 12
  • Of the 21,135 children in out-of-home care in 2006, 3,624 or 17.1% were waiting to be adopted. 13
  • In 2007, approximately 83,770 Pennsylvania grandparents had primary responsibility caring for their grandchildren. 14
  • Of the 21,135 children in out-of-home care in 2006, 21.2% were living with relatives while in care. 15
  • Of all Pennsylvania children in kinship care in 2006, 34.3% were white, 54.5% were black, 5.9% were Hispanic, 0.1% were American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 5.2% were other races. 16

CHILD POVERTY AND INCOME SUPPORT

  • The total number of individuals receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in Pennsylvania decreased from 152,437 in March 2007 to 128,842 in March 2008, a decrease of 15.5%. The number of families receiving TANF in March 2008 was 53,907, a 15.3% decrease from March 2007. 17
  • In 2003, a family of three receiving only TANF and food stamp benefits in Pennsylvania was at 39.2% of the federal poverty guideline. 18
  • In 2006, Pennsylvania spent $993,770,890 in TANF funds, including 39.5% on basic assistance, 3.4% on transportation, and 57.1% on nonassistance. 19
  • In 2007, Pennsylvania spent $106,122,891 on WIC (the Special Supplement Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children), serving 244,156 participants. 20
  • In 2007, Pennsylvania collected and distributed $1,452,239,214 in child support funds, a 0.7% increase from 2006. 21
  • In 2008, the fair-market rent for a two-bedroom apartment in Pennsylvania was $755 per month. The wage needed to afford this rent was $14.52 per hour, working a 40- hour week. 22

CHILD CARE AND HEAD START

  • In 2006, Pennsylvania had a monthly average of 82,800 children served by subsidized child care; 72,600 children received subsidized child care in 2005, and 63,700 in 2004. 23
  • In 2008, to be eligible for subsidized child care in Pennsylvania, a family of three could make no more than $34,340, which is equivalent to 60% of the state's median income. 24
  • As of early 2008, Pennsylvania had 8,424 children on its waiting list for child care assistance. 25
  • In 2007, Head Start served 35,362 Pennsylvania children, a 13.7% increase from 2001. 26

HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE

  • In 2005, 950,000 children younger than 19 were enrolled in Medicaid in Pennsylvania- 47.4% of the total number of enrollees. 27
  • In 2005, 52,870 children were enrolled in Medicaid in Pennsylvania on the basis of being in foster care. 28
  • In 2005, of the 52,870 children enrolled in Medicaid on the basis of being in foster care, 3,065 received Targeted Case Management services, and 2,826 received Rehabilitative Services. 29
  • In 2007, Pennsylvania had 161,166 children enrolled in its State Children's Health Insurance Program, a 12.3% increase from 2006, when 143,501 children were enrolled. 30
  • In 2007, Pennsylvania had 207,000 uninsured children, representing 7.4% of its child population. 31
  • In 2005, 12,094 babies were born weighing less than 2,500 grams, giving Pennsylvania a rank of 43 nationally in percent of low-weight births (1 being the best, and 50 the worst). 32
  • In 2005, 1,061 infants under age 1 died in Pennsylvania, giving it a rank of 42 nationally in terms of infant mortality rates (a rank of 1 being the best and 50 the worst). 33
  • In 2005, the birth rate for teens 15-17 in Pennsylvania was 16 births per 1,000 girls; for teens 18-19, the rate was 52. This reflects a total rate of 30 births per 1,000 girls ages 15-19. 34
  • Cumulative through 2006, 33,417 adults and adolescents, as well as 365 children younger than 13, were reported as having HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. 35
  • In 2006, an estimated 76,000 children ages 12-17, and 773,000 adults age 26 and older, were dependent on or abusing illicit drugs or alcohol in Pennsylvania. 36

VULNERABLE YOUTH

  • In 2006, 1,051 children aged out of out-of-home care in Pennsylvania. 37
  • In 2007, 41,000 Pennsylvania teens ages 16-19 were high-school dropouts. 38
  • In 2007, 7% of teens ages 16-19 were not enrolled in school and were not working. 39
  • In 2006, 13% of people ages 18-24 were not enrolled in school, were not working, and had no degree beyond high school. 40
  • In 2006, approximately 39,000 children ages 12-17 in Pennsylvania needed but had not received treatment for illicit drug use in the past year. 41
  • In 2006, approximately 51,000 children ages 12-17 needed but had not received treatment for alcohol use in the past year. 42
  • In 2005, 89 Pennsylvania children younger than 20 committed suicide, a rate of 2.65 per 100,000 children. 43

JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION

  • In 2005, 67 children under age 18 were killed in firearm homicides in Pennsylvania, a 14% increase from 59 in 2004. 44
  • In 2007, 102,497 children younger than 18 were arrested in Pennsylvania, a 3.8% decrease from 106,572 arrests in 2006. Of those arrests, 5,257 were for violent crimes and 1,564 were for possession of a weapon. 45
  • A 2006 census of juvenile offenders showed 4,323 children in juvenile correction facilities in Pennsylvania. 46

FUNDING CHILD WELFARE SERVICES FOR PENNSYLVANIA'S CHILDREN

  • In 2006, Pennsylvania spent $1,624,380,399 for child welfare services. Child welfare services are all direct and administrative services the state agency provides to children and families. Of this amount, 24% was from federal funds, 56% from state funds, and 20.2% from local funds. 47
  • In 2006, of the $389,052,449 in federal funds received for child welfare, 81% came from Title IV-E Foster Care and Adoption Assistance, 2% from Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families, 3% from the Social Services Block Grant, 10% from TANF, and 4% from other federal sources. 48
  • Out of 21,135 children in out-of-home care in Pennsylvania in 2006, only 13,399, or 63.4%, received Title IV-E federal foster care assistance. 49

PENNSYLVANIA'S CHILD WELFARE WORKFORCE

  • A 2003 General Accounting Office (GAO) report documented that staff shortages, high caseloads, high worker turnover and low salaries impinge on delivering services to achieve safety, permanence, and well being for children. 50
  • The federal Child and Family Service Reviews have clearly demonstrated that the more time a caseworker spends with a child and family, the better the outcomes for those children and families. 51
  • According to the 2003 GAO report, the average caseload for child welfare/foster care caseworkers is 24-31 children; these high caseloads contribute to high worker turnover and insufficient services being provided to children and families. CWLA recommends that foster care caseworkers have caseloads of 12-15 children. 52

NOTES AND REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2007). Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (NST-EST2007-01). Retrieved online October 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  2. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Annual State Population Estimates by Demographic Characteristics with 6 Race Groups (5 Race Alone Groups and One Group with Two or more Race Groups): April 1, 2000, to July 1, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  3. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Current Population Survey, 2008 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2007. Retrieved October 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  4. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Current Population Survey, 2008 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2007: People Under 18 Years of Age. Retrieved October 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  5. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Current Population Survey, 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2007: Related Children 5 to 17 Years of Age. Retrieved October 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  6. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). 2007 American Community Survey, Data Profile. Selected Population Profiles: 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  7. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2008). Child Maltreatment 2006: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Retrieved October 16, 2008 online here and here. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  8. Ibid., retrieved October 16, 2008back
  9. CWLA. (2008). Special tabulation from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System (AFCARS). Arlington, VA: Author. back
  10. Other races and ethnicities includes Asian, Pacific Islander, Hawaiian Native, unknown or unable to determine, missing data, and two or more races. CWLA, special tabulation from AFCARS. back
  11. Ibid. back
  12. Ibid. back
  13. Ibid. back
  14. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). 2007 American Community Survey, Data Profile. Selected Social Characteristics: 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  15. CWLA, special tabulation from AFCARS. back
  16. Ibid. back
  17. U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (2008). Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, Separate State Program-Maintenance of Effort Aid to Families with Dependant Children: Caseload Data. Retrieved October 16, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  18. Calculations by CWLA, based on HHS. (2006). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program: Sixth Annual Report to Congress. Retrieved February 2, 2009. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Food and Nutrition Service. (2005). Food Stamp Program-Annual State Level Data-State Level Participation. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: FY 2003. Retrieved February 2, 2009. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2003). The 2003 HHS Poverty Guidelines. Retrieved February 2, 2009. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  19. Nonassistance is benefits provided to TANF recipients that are not considered assistance as defined by law and thus do not trigger the clock for lifetime limits on TANF benefits. Administration for Children and Families. (2007). Combined Spending of Federal and State Funds Expended in FY 2006. Retrieved October 21, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  20. Food and Nutrition Service. (2008). WIC Program Participation and Cost. Retrieved November 24, 2008. Washington, DC: USDA. back
  21. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement. (2008). Preliminary Data Report FY 2007 (Preliminary). Retrieved October 21, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  22. National Low Income Housing Coalition. (2008). Out of Reach. Retrieved, October 21, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  23. Administration on Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2008). FFY 2006 CCDF Data Tables (Final, July 2008); Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved November 10, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS.
    Administration on Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2007). FFY 2005 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved November 22, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS.
    Administration on Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2006). FFY 2004 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved November 22, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  24. Schulman, K. & Blank, H. (2008). State Child Care Assistance Policies 2008: Too Little Progress for Children & Families. Retrieved November 10, 2008. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center. back
  25. Ibid. back
  26. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start. (2008). Head Start Program Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2008. Washington, D.C.: HHS. back
  27. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. (n.d.). State Medicaid Fact Sheets. Retrieved October 6, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  28. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (n.d.). Medicaid Statistical Information System. Retrieved November 21, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  29. Ibid. back
  30. Smith, V.; Rousseau, D.; Marks, C.; & Rudowitz, R. (2008) SCHIP Enrollment in June 2007: An Update on Current Enrollment and SCHIP Policy Directions. Retrieved December 3, 2008. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. back
  31. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008.) Current Population Survey, 2008 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Retrieved October 27, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  32. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low birthweight babies: Number: 2005. Retrieved November 21, 2008. Baltimore: Author.
    Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low birthweight babies: Percent: 2005. Retrieved November 21, 2008. Baltimore: Author. back
  33. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant Mortality: Number: 2005. Retrieved November 21, 2008. Baltimore: Author.
    Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant Mortality: Rate: 2005. Retrieved November 21, 2008. Baltimore, MD: Author. back
  34. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Teen Births, by Age Group, Rate per 1,000: 2005. Retrieved November 21, 2008. Baltimore: Author. back 35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2006. Vol. 17. Retrieved October 6, 2008, www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/2006report/table14.htm. Atlanta: Author. 36. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies. (2008). State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2005-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved November 10, 2008, www.oas.samhsa.gov/ statesList.cfm. Rockville, MD: Author. 37. Children who age out of foster care are captured by the AFCARS emancipation data element. Children who exit care to emancipation are those who reach the age of majority according to state law by virtue of age, marriage, etc. CWLA, Special AFCARS tabulation. 38. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2008, www.kidscount.org/datacenter/compare_results.jsp?i=440&dt=1&rt= 2&yr=8&s=a&dtype=&rtype=&x=148&y=2. Baltimore: Author. 39. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Teens not attending school and not working: Percent: 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008, www.kidscount.org/datacenter/compare_results.jsp?i=120. Baltimore: Author. 40. Annie E. Casey Foundation (2008). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Persons Age 18-24 not attending school, not working, and no degree beyond High School: Percent 2006. Retrieved November 10, 2008, www.kidscount.org/ datacenter/compare_results.jsp?i=130. Baltimore: Author. 41. SAMHSA, State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2005-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. 42. Ibid.
  35. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2008). Injury Mortality Reports, 1999-2005. Retrieved November 5, 2008. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. back
  36. Ibid. back
  37. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2008). Crime in the United States 2007 (Table 69). Retrieved November 5, 2008. Washington, DC: Author.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Crime in the United States 2006 (Table 69). Retrieved November 5, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  38. Sickmund, M.; Sladky, T.J., & Kang, W. (2008). Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook. Retrieved November 5, 2008. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. back
  39. Examples of direct services include child abuse/neglect investigations, foster care, community-based programs, case management, and all such services required for the safety, permanency, and well-being of children. Examples of administrative services include management information systems, training programs, eligibility determination processes, and all services that provide the infrastructure supports for the public agency. DeVooght, K.; Allen, T.; & Geen, R. (2008). Federal, State, and Local Spending to Address Child Abuse and Neglect in SFY 2006. Washington, DC: Child Trends. back
  40. Ibid. back
  41. CWLA, Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  42. U.S. General Accounting Office. (2003). Child Welfare: HHS Could Play a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staff. Retrieved January 27, 2009. Washington, DC: Author. back
  43. Ibid. back
  44. Ibid. back




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