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Home > Advocacy > State Fact Sheets for 2008 > Michigan

 
 

MICHIGAN'S CHILDREN 2008

Michigan's Children At a Glance

 
 State Population 1  10,095,643 
 Population, Children Under 18 2  2,524,274 
 State Poverty Rate 3  13.3% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 18 4  19.3% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Ages 5-17 5  17.8% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 5 6  20.3% 
All statistics are for 2006.

CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

  • In 2005, 14,651 children were substantiated or indicated as abused or neglected in Michigan, a rate of 9.7 per 1,000 children, and representing a 14.4% decrease from 2004. Of these children, 75.1% were neglected, 17.9% were physically abused, and 4.8% were sexually abused. 7
  • In 2005, 20,498 children in Michigan lived apart from their families in out-of-home care, compared with 21,173 children in 2004. In 2005, 30.3% of the children living apart from their families were age 5 or younger, and 21.2% were 16 or older. 8
  • Of the children in out-of-home care in 2005, 41% were white, 49.1% black, 4.3% Hispanic, 1.1% American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 4.5% children of other races and ethnicities. 9

PERMANENT FAMILIES FOR CHILDREN

  • Of the 9,546 children exiting out-of-home care in 2005, 55% were reunited with their parents or other family members. 10
  • In 2005, 2,883 children were legally adopted through the public child welfare agency in Michigan, a 2.8% increase from 2,801 in 2004. 11
  • Of the 20,498 children in out-of-home care in 2005, 7,193, or 35.1%, were waiting to be adopted. 12

KINSHIP SUPPORT

  • In 2005, approximately 65,062 Michigan grandparents had primary responsibility caring for their grandchildren. 13
  • Of the 20,498 children in out-of-home care in 2005, 32.4% were living with relatives while in care. 14
  • Of all Michigan children in kinship care in 2005, 39.2% were white, 51.7% were black, 4.2% were Hispanic, 0.9% were American Indian/ Alaskan Native, and 3.9% were other races. 15

CHILD POVERTY AND INCOME SUPPORT

  • The total individuals receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in Michigan decreased from 219,946 in March 2006 to 190,353 in March 2007, a decrease of 11.3%. The number of families receiving TANF in March 2007 was 73,283, an 8.2% decrease from March 2006. 16
  • In 2003, a family of three receiving only TANF and food stamp benefits in Michigan was at 44.7% of the federal poverty level. 17
  • In 2006, Michigan spent $1,186,564,912 in TANF funds, including 35.6% on basic assistance, 2.8% on child care, 68.2% on nonassistance, and none on transportation. 18
  • In 2006, Michigan collected and distributed $1,399,561,029 in child support funds, an increase of 1.3% from 2005. 19
  • In 2006, the fair market rent for a two-bedroom apartment in Michigan was $718 per month. The wage necessary to afford this two-bedroom apartment was $13.80 per hour working a 40-hour week. 20

CHILD CARE AND HEAD START

  • In 2005, Michigan had an estimated monthly average of 79,300 children served by subsidized child care; 44,500 children received subsidized child care in 2004, and 61,200 in 2003. 21
  • In 2007, to be eligible for subsidized child care in Michigan a family of three could make no more than $23,880, which is equivalent to 40% of the state's median income. 22
  • In 2007, no Michigan children were on the state's waiting list for child care assistance. 23
  • In 2006, Head Start served 35,069 Michigan children, the same as in 2005. 24

HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE

  • In 2004, 925,600 children younger than 19 were enrolled in Medicaid in Michigan, representing 52.3% of the total number of enrollees. 25
  • In 2004, 41,197 children were enrolled in Medicaid in Michigan on the basis of being in foster care. 26
  • In 2004, Michigan spent $107,560,300 on Medicaid services for children in foster care, and $2,611 per foster care enrollee on Medicaid services. 27
  • Michigan reported spending $6,270 of its total Medicaid spending in 2004 for children in foster care on targeted case management services. 28
  • Michigan reported spending $0 of its total Medicaid expenditures in 2004 for foster children on rehabilitative services. 29
  • In 2006, Michigan had 118,501 children enrolled in its Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), a 24.68% increase from 2005, when 89,257 children were enrolled. 30
  • In 2004, 10,828 babies were born weighing less than 2,500 grams, giving Michigan a rank of 30 nationally in percent of low-weight births (1 being the best, and 50 the worst). 31
  • In 2004, 984 infants younger than age 1 died in Michigan, giving it a rank of 34 nationally in infant mortality rates (1 being the best, and 50 the worst). 32
  • In 2004, the birth rate for teens 15-17 in Michigan was 17.7 births per 1,000 girls; for teens 18-19, the rate was 59.2. This reflects a total rate of 34.1 births per 1,000 girls ages 15-19. 33
  • Cumulative through 2005, 12,044 adults and adolescents, as well as 72 children under the age of 13, were reported as having HIV/AIDS in Michigan. 34
  • In 2005, an estimated 74,000 children ages 12-17, and 469,000 adults 26 and older, were dependent on or abusing illicit drugs or alcohol in Michigan.. 35

VULNERABLE YOUTH

  • In 2005, 514 children aged out of out-of-home care in Michigan. 36
  • In 2005, 35,000 Michigan teens ages 16-19 were high school dropouts. 37
  • In 2005, 15% of teens ages 16-19 were not enrolled in school, were not working, and had no degree beyond high school. 38
  • In 2005, approximately 41,000 children ages 12-17 in Michigan needed but had not received treatment for illicit drug use in the past year. 39
  • In 2005, approximately 48,000 children ages 12-17 needed but had not received treatment for alcohol use in the past year. 40
  • In 2004, 71 children younger than 20 committed suicide, a rate of 2.52 per 100,000 children. 41

JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION

  • In 2004, 57 children younger than 18 were killed in firearm homicides in Michigan, a 159% increase from 22 in 2003. 42
  • In 2006, 44,002 children younger than 18 were arrested in Michigan, a 4.21% increase from 45,934 arrests in 2005. Of the arrests in 2006, 2,450 were for violent crimes and 1026 were for possession of a weapon. 43
  • A 2003 census of juvenile offenders showed 2,706 children in juvenile correction facilities in Michigan. 44

FUNDING CHILD WELFARE SERVICES FOR MICHIGAN'S CHILDREN

  • In 2004, Michigan spent $809,789,367 for child welfare services. Child welfare services are all direct and administrative services the state agency provides to children and families. Of this amount, 62% was from federal funds, 33% was from state funds, and 5% was from local funds. 45
  • In 2004, of the $504,604,730 in federal funds received for child welfare, 45% was from Title IV-E Foster Care and Adoption Assistance, 4% came from Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families, 9% came from the Social Services Block Grant, 41% was from TANF, and 1% came from other federal sources. 46
  • Out of 20,498 children in out-of-home care in Michigan in 2005, only 5,905 children, or 28.8%, received Title IV-E federal foster care assistance. 47

MICHIGAN'S CHILD WELFARE WORKFORCE

  • A 2003 General Accounting Office (GAO) report documented that staff shortages, high caseloads, high worker turnover and low salaries impinge on delivering services to achieve safety, permanence, and well being for children. 48
  • The federal Child and Family Service Reviews have clearly demonstrated that the more time a caseworker spends with a child and family, the better the outcomes for those children and families. 49
  • According to the 2003 GAO report, the average caseload for child welfare/foster care caseworkers is 24-31 children; these high caseloads contribute to high worker turnover and insufficient services being provided to children and families. CWLA recommends that foster care caseworkers have case-loads of 12-15 children.50

REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division. (2006). Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (NST_EST2006_ALLDATA). Retrieved online November 12, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  2. Administration on Children, Youth and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Retrieved online November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. back
  3. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2007). Current Population Survey, 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  4. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2007). Current Population Survey, 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2006: People Under 18 Years of Age. Retrieved November 12, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  5. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2007). Current Population Survey, 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2006: Related Children 5 to 17 Years of Age. Retrieved November 12, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  6. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2007). 2006 American Community Survey, Selected Economic Characteristics. Retrieved November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  7. Administration on Children, Youth and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Retrieved November 16, 2007 and table3_6.htm. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. back
  8. Child Welfare League of America. (2007). Special tabulation of the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System. Washington, DC: Author. back
  9. "Other races and ethnicities" includes Asian, Pacific Islander, Hawaiian Native, unknown or unable to determine, missing data and two or more races. CWLA (2007) Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  10. CWLA (2007) Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  11. Ibid; CWLA (2006) Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  12. CWLA (2007) Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  13. U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). 2006 American Community Survey, Data Profile. Selected Social Characteristics: 2005. Retrieved online November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  14. CWLA (2006) Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  15. Ibid. back
  16. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (n.d.). Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Separate State Program-Maintenance of Effort Aid to Families with Dependant Children: Caseload Data. Retrieved online, November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. back
  17. Calculations by CWLA, based on U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program: Sixth Annual Report to Congress. Retrieved online November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: Author; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. (2005). Food Stamp Program-Annual State Level Data - State Level Participation. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: FY 2003. Retrieved online November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: Author; U.S. Department on Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2003). The 2003 HHS Poverty Guidelines. Retrieved online, November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  18. Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Combined Spending of Federal and States Funds Expended in FY 2004 Through the Fourth Quarter. Retrieved online, October 13, 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. back
  19. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement. (2007). Preliminary Data Report FY 2006, State Boxscores for FY 2006. Retrieved online, November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. back
  20. Pitcoff, W.; Pelletiere, D.; Crowley, S.; Treskon, M.; & Dolbeare, C. (2007). Out of Reach 2006. Retrieved online, November 16, 2007. Washington, DC: National Low Income Housing Coalition. back
  21. Administration on Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2005). FFY 2005 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, October 2, 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Administration on Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2003). FFY 2003 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, October 2, 2006. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration on Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2004). FFY 2004 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, October 2, 2006. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  22. Schulman, K., & Blank, H. (2007). State Child Care Assistance Policies 2007: Some Steps Forward, More Progress Needed. Retrieved online, November 19, 2007. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center. back
  23. Ibid. back
  24. Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau. (2007). Head Start Fact Sheet. Retrieved online, November 19, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau. (2006). Head Start Fact Sheet. Retrieved online, October 2, 2006, from www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/hsb/research/2006.htm. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  25. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2007). State Medicaid Fact Sheets. Retrieved online, November 26, 2007. Menlo Park, CA: Author. back
  26. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (n.d.). Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS). Retrieved November 21, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. back
  27. Ibid. back
  28. Ibid. back
  29. Ibid. back
  30. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2007). FY 2006 Number of Children Ever Enrolled Year-SCHIP by Program Type. Retrieved online November 21, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. back
  31. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low birth weight babies: Number: 2004. Retrieved online, November 21, 2007. Baltimore: Author; Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low birth weight babies: Percent: 2004. Retrieved online, November 21, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  32. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant Mortality: Number: 2004. Retrieved online, November 21, 2007. Baltimore: Author; Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant Mortality: Rate: 2004. Retrieved online, November 21, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  33. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Teen Births, by Age Group, Rate per 1,000: 2004. Retrieved online, November 21, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2005. Vol. 17. Retrieved online November 21, 2007. Atlanta: Author. back
  35. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies. (2007). State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2004-2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved online November 21, 2007. Rockville, MD: Author. back
  36. Children who aged out of foster care are captured by the AFCARS emancipation data element. Children who exit care to emancipation are those who reached the age of majority. CWLA (2007) Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  37. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2005. Retrieved online, November 26, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  38. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Teens not attending school and not working: Percent: 2005. Retrieved online, November 26, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  39. SAMHSA, State Estimates of Substance Useback
  40. Ibid. back
  41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). Injury Mortality Reports, 1999-2004. Retrieved online, November 28, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  42. Ibid. back
  43. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Crime in the United States 2006 (Table 69). Retrieved online, November 26, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. FBI. (2006). Crime in the United States 2005 (Table 69). Retrieved online, October 3, 2006. Washington, DC: Author. back
  44. Sickmund, M.; Sladky, T.J., & Kang, W. (2005). Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook. Retrieved online October 3, 2006. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. back
  45. Examples of direct services include child abuse/neglect investigations, foster care, community based programs, case management, and all such services that are required for the safety, permanency, and well being of children. Examples of administrative services include management information systems, training programs, eligibility determination processes, and all services that provide the infrastructure supports for the public agency. Scarcella, C.A.; Bess, R.; Zielewski, E.H.; & Geen, R. (2006). The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children V: Understanding State Variation in Child Welfare Financing. Retrieved online, October 3, 2006. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  46. Ibid. back
  47. CWLA (2007) Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  48. U.S. General Accounting Office. (March 2003). Child Welfare: HHS Could Play a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staff. Retrieved online, January 14, 2005. Washington, DC: Author. back
  49. Ibid. back
  50. Ibid. back




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