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Home > Advocacy > State Fact Sheets for 2007 > Pennsylvania

 
 

PENNSYLVANIA'S CHILDREN 2007

Pennsylvania's Children At a Glance

 
 State Population 1  12,429,616 
 Population, Children Under 18 2  2,816,739 
 State Poverty Rate 3  11.2% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 18 4  16.7% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Ages 5-17 5  15.2% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 5 6  19.5% 
All statistics are for 2005.

CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

  • In 2004, 4,647 children were substantiated or indicated as abused or neglected in Pennsylvania, a rate of 1.6 per 1,000 children, and representing a 1.7% increase from 2003. Of these children, 2.6% were neglected, 34.3% were physically abused, and 60.7% were sexually abused. 7
  • In 2004, 42 children died as a result of abuse or neglect in Pennsylvania. 8
  • On September 30, 2004, 21,944 children in Pennsylvania lived apart from their families in out-of-home care, compared with 21,768 children on September 30, 2003. In 2004, 25.5% of the children living apart from their families were age 5 or younger, and 24.9% were 16 or older. 9
  • Of the children in out-of-home care on September 30, 2004, 39.8% were white, 47.8% were black, 8.2% were Hispanic, 0.1% were American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 4.0% were children of other races and ethnicities. 10

PERMANENT FAMILIES FOR CHILDREN

  • Of the 12,625 children exiting out-of-home care in 2004, 64.1% were reunited with their parents or other family members. 11
  • In 2004, 1,898 children were legally adopted through the public child welfare agency in Pennsylvania, a 2.5% decrease from 1,946 in 2003. 12
  • Of the 21,944 children in out-of-home care in 2004, 4,041 or 18.4% were waiting to be adopted. 13

KINSHIP SUPPORT

  • In 2005, approximately 77,700 Pennsylvania grandparents had primary responsibility caring for their grandchildren. 14
  • Of the 21,944 children in out-of-home care on September 30, 2004, 19.3% were living with relatives while in care. 15
  • Of all Pennsylvania children in kinship care on September 30, 2004, 30.6% were white, 58.9% were black, 5.8% were Hispanic, 0.1% were American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 4.6% were of other races. 16

CHILD POVERTY AND INCOME SUPPORT

  • The total number of individuals receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in Pennsylvania decreased from 253,763 in March 2005 to 247,536 in March 2006, a decrease of 2.5%. The number of families receiving TANF in March 2006 was 95,555 , a 1.3% decrease from March 2005. 17
  • In 2002, a family of three receiving only TANF and food stamp benefits in Pennsylvania was at 81.6% of the federal poverty guideline. 18
  • In 2004, Pennsylvania spent $1,191,955,175 in TANF funds, including 32.3% on basic assistance, 2.2% on transportation, and 65.5% on nonassistance. 19
  • In 2005, Pennsylvania collected and distributed $1,413,912,650 in child support funds, an increase of 3.1% from 2004. 20
  • In 2005, the fair market rent for a two-bedroom apartment in Pennsylvania was $745 per month. The wage necessary to afford this two-bedroom apartment was $14.34 per hour, working a 40-hour week. 21

CHILD CARE AND HEAD START

  • In 2005, Pennsylvania had an estimated monthly average of 72,600 children served by subsidized child care; 63,700 children received subsidized child care in 2004, and 60,700 in 2003. 22
  • In 2006, to be eligible for subsidized child care in Pennsylvania, a family of three could make no more than $32,180, which is equivalent to 56% of the state's median income. 23
  • In 2006, Pennsylvania had 7,353 children on its waiting list for child care assistance. 24
  • In 2005, Head Start served 32,282 Pennsylvania children, a 4.6% increase from 2004. 25

HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE

  • In 2002, 828,500 children younger than 19 were enrolled in Medicaid in Pennsylvania, representing 48.4% of the total number of enrollees. 26
  • In 2001, 46,886 foster and adopted children were enrolled in Medicaid in Pennsylvania, representing 5.9% of all children in Medicaid. 27
  • In 2001, Pennsylvania spent $183,839,821 on Medicaid services for children in foster care, and $3,921 on Medicaid services per foster care enrollee. 28
  • Pennsylvania reported spending $690,751.00 of its total Medicaid expenditures in 2001 on targeted case management services for foster children. 29
  • In 2005, Pennsylvania had 179,807 children enrolled in its State Children's Health Insurance Program, a 1.3% increase from 2004, when 177,415 children were enrolled. 30
  • In 2003, 11,718 babies were born weighing less than 2,500 grams, giving Pennsylvania a ranking of 43 nationally in number of low-weight births (1 being the best, and 50 the worst). 31
  • In 2003, 1,070 infants younger than 1 year died in Pennsylvania, giving the state a ranking of 42 nationally in infant mortality rates (1 being the best, and 50 the worst). 32
  • In 2004, the birth rate for teens age 15-17 in Pennsylvania was 16.6 births per 1,000 girls; for teens 18-19, the rate was 51.6. This reflects a total rate of 30.5 births per 1,000 girls ages 15-19. 33
  • Cumulative through 2004, 30,174 adults and adolescents, as well as 352 children younger than 13, were reported as having HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. 34
  • In 2004, an estimated 85,000 children age 12-17, and 544,000 adults 26 and older, were dependent on or abusing illicit drugs or alcohol in Pennsylvania. 35

VULNERABLE YOUTH

  • In 2004, 1025 children aged-out of out-of-home care in Pennsylvania. 36
  • In 2004, 32,000 Pennsylvania teens age 16-19 were high school dropouts. 37
  • In 2004, 6% of teens age 16-19 were not enrolled in school, were not working, and had no degree beyond high school. 38
  • In 2004, approximately 46,000 children age 12-17 in Pennsylvania needed, but had not received, treatment for illicit drug use in the past year. 39
  • In 2004, approximately 55,000 children age 12-17 needed, but had not received, treatment for alcohol use in the past year. 40
  • In 2003, 90 children and youth younger than 20 committed suicide, a rate of 2.83 per 100,000 children. 41

JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION

  • In 2003, 26 children under age 18 were killed in firearm homicides in Pennsylvania, a 13% decrease from 30 in 2002. 42
  • In 2005, 101,608 children younger than 18 were arrested in Pennsylvania, a 2.4% decrease from 104,140 arrests in 2004. Of the arrests in 2005, 5,107 were for violent crimes and 1,689 were for possession of a weapon. 43
  • A 2003 census of juvenile offenders showed 4,341 children in juvenile correction facilities in Pennsylvania. 44

FUNDING CHILD WELFARE SERVICES FOR PENNSYLVANIA'S CHILDREN

  • In 2004, Pennsylvania spent $1,702,795,124 for child welfare services. Child welfare services are all direct and administrative services the state agency provides to children and families. 45 Of this amount, 43% was from federal funds, 41% was from state funds, and 16% was from local funds. 46
  • In 2004, of the $736,980,525 in federal funds received for child welfare, 56% was from Title IV-E Foster Care and Adoption Assistance, 3% came from Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families, 2% came from the Social Services Block Grant, and 39% was from TANF. 47
  • Out of 21,944 children in out-of-home care in Pennsylvania on September 30, 2004, only 12,131 , or 55.3%, received Title IV-E federal foster care assistance. 48

PENNSYLVANIA'S CHILD WELFARE WORKFORCE

  • A 2003 General Accounting Office (GAO) report documented that staff shortages, high caseloads, high worker turnover and low salaries impinge on delivering services to achieve safety, permanence, and well-being for children. 49
  • The federal Child and Family Service Reviews have demonstrated clearly that the more time a caseworker spends with a child and family, the better the outcomes for those children and families. 50
  • According to the 2003 GAO report, the average caseload for child welfarefoster care caseworkers is 24-31 children; these high caseloads contribute to high worker turnover and insufficient services provided to children and families. CWLA recommends that foster care caseworkers have caseloads of 12-15 children. 51

REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division (2005). Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 (NST-EST2005-01). Retrieved online September 18, 2006. Washington, DC: Author. back
  2. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, Population Reference Bureau. (2006). Special tabulations of the supplementary survey. Washington, DC: Author. back
  3. U.S. Bureau of the Census (2006). Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2005. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  4. U.S. Bureau of the Census (2006). Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2005 Below 100% and 125% of Poverty--People Under 18 Years of Age. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  5. U.S. Bureau of the Census (2006). 2005 American Community Survey, Selected Economic Characteristics. Retrieved January 23, 2007. back
  6. Ibid. back
  7. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF). (2006). Child Maltreatment 2004: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). back
  8. ACYF, Child Maltreatment 2004back
  9. Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). (2006). Special tabulation of the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System AFCARS). Washington, DC: Author. back
  10. "Other races and ethnicities" includes Asian, Pacific Islander, Hawaiian Native, unknown or unable to determine, missing data and two or more races; CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2006. back
  11. Ibid. back
  12. Ibid.; CWLA. (2005). Special tabulation from AFCARS. back
  13. CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2006. back
  14. U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). American Community Survey, Data Profile. Selected Social Characteristics: 2005. Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  15. CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2006. back
  16. Ibid. back
  17. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (2006, 2005). Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Separate State Program-Maintenance of Effort Aid to Families with Dependant Children: Caseload Data. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  18. Calculations by CWLA, based on Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (2004). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program: Sixth Annual Report to Congress. (Table 1:14, Average Monthly Amount of Assistance per Family and per Recipient Fiscal Year 2002). Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Food and Nutrition Service. (2005). Food Stamp Program--Annual State Level Data--State Level Participation. Food Stamp Program: Average Monthly Benefit Per Household (FY 2002). Retrieved online October 13, 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2002). The 2002 HHS Poverty Guidelines. Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  19. Administration for Children and Families. (2004). TANF Financial Data. Table F: Combined Spending of Federal and States Funds Expended in FY 2004 Through the Fourth Quarter. Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  20. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement. (2006). Child Support Enforcement, FY 2005 Preliminary Data. Table 3--Total Distributed Collections, FY 2005. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement. (2005). Child Support Enforcement Program Results for FY 2004. Table 3--Total Distributed Collections, FY 2004. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  21. Pitcoff, W.; Pelletiere, D.; Crowley, S.; Treskon, M.; & Dolbeare, C. (2005). Out of Reach 2005. Retrieved online, September 27, 2006. Washington, DC: National Low Income Housing Coalition. back
  22. Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2005). FFY 2005 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2003). FFY 2003 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2004). FFY 2004 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  23. Schulman, K. & Blank, H. (2006). State Child Care Assistance Policies 2006: Gaps Remain with New Challenges Ahead. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center. back
  24. Ibid. back
  25. Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau. (2006). Head Start fact sheet. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau. (2005). Head Start program fact sheet. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  26. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2006). Medicaid enrollment by group, FFY 2002. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Menlo Park, CA: Author. back
  27. Geen, R., Sommers, A., & Cohen, M. (2005). Medicaid Spending on Foster Children. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  28. Ibid. back
  29. Urban Institute estimates based on data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2001). Medicaid Statistical Information System, Summary File, Baltimore: Author. back
  30. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2006). FY 2005 number of children ever enrolled year--SCHIP by program type. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  31. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low-birthweight babies: Number: 2003. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  32. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant Mortality: Number: 2003. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  33. Martin, J.A.; Hamilton, B.E.; Sutton, P.D.; Ventura, S.J.; Menacker, F.; & Kirmeyer, S. (2006). Births: Final data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports 55(1). Retrieved January 23, 2007. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. back
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2004. Vol. 16. Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Atlanta: Author. back
  35. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies. (2006). State estimates of substance use from the 2003-2004 national surveys on drug use and health. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Rockville, MD: Author. back
  36. Children who aged out of foster care are captured by the AFCARS emancipation data element. Children who exit care to emancipation are those who reached the age of majority; AFCARS. back
  37. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author; Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2000. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  38. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author; Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2000. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  39. SAMHSA, State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2003-2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Healthback
  40. Ibid. back
  41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2006). Injury Mortality Reports, 1999-2004. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Atlanta: Author. back
  42. Ibid. back
  43. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2006). Crime in the United States 2005 (Table 69). Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author; Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2006). Crime in the United States 2004 (Table 69). Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  44. Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., & and Kang, W. (2005). Census of juveniles in residential placement databook. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. back
  45. Examples of direct services include child abuse and neglect investigations, foster care, community-based programs, case management, and all such services required for the safety, permanency, and well-being of children. Examples of administrative services include management information systems, training programs, eligibility determination processes, and all services that provide the infrastructure supports for the public agency. back
  46. Scarcella, C.A.; Bess, R.; Zielewski, E.H.; & Geen, R. (2006). The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children V: Understanding State Variation in Child Welfare Financing. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  47. Ibid. back
  48. CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2005. back
  49. U.S. General Accounting Office. (March 2003). Child Welfare: HHS Could Play a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staff. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  50. Ibid. back
  51. Ibid. back




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