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Home > Advocacy > State Fact Sheets for 2007 > Michigan

 
 

MICHIGAN'S CHILDREN 2007

Michigan's Children At a Glance

 
 State Population 1  10,120,860 
 Population, Children Under 18 2  2,524,274 
 State Poverty Rate 3  12.0% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 18 4  18.5% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Ages 5-17 5  17.2% 
 Poverty Rate, Children Under 5 6  20.6% 
All statistics are for 2005.

CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

  • In 2004, 28,035 children were substantiated or indicated as abused or neglected in Michigan, a rate of 11.1 per 1,000 children, and represent-ing a 2.3% decrease from 2003. Of these children, 71.9% were neglect-ed, 19.6% were physically abused, and 5.2% were sexually abused. 7
  • On September 30, 2004, 21,173 children in Michigan lived apart from their families in out-of-home care, compared with 21,376 children on September 30, 2003. In 2004, 29.9% of the children living apart from their families were age 5 or younger, and 19.9% were 16 or older. 8
  • Of the children in out-of-home care on September 30, 2004, 40.4% were white, 51.0% were black, 4.1% were Hispanic, 1.0% were American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 3.6% were children of other races and ethnicities. 9

PERMANENT FAMILIES FOR CHILDREN

  • Of the 9,234 children exiting out-of-home care in 2004, 54.1% were reunited with their parents or other family members. 10
  • In 2004, 2,801 children were legally adopted through the public child welfare agency in Michigan, a 6.4% increase from 2,622 in 2003. 11
  • Of the 21,173 children in out-of-home care in 2004, 6,669 or 31.5% were waiting to be adopted. 12

KINSHIP SUPPORT

  • In 2005, approximately 69,840 Michigan grandparents had primary responsibility caring for their grandchildren. 13
  • Of the 21,173 children in out-of-home care on September 30, 2004, 32.0% were living with relatives while in care. 14
  • Of all Michigan children in kinship care on September 30, 2004, 36.1% were white, 55.3% were black, 4.8% were Hispanic, 0.8% were American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 3.1% were of other races. 15

CHILD POVERTY AND INCOME SUPPORT

  • The total number of individuals receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in Michigan decreased from 216,726 in March 2005 to 215,319 in March 2006, a decrease of 0.7%. The number of families receiving TANF in March 2006 was 81,326 , the same as in March 2005. 16
  • In 2002, a family of three receiving only TANF and food stamp benefits in Michigan was at 42.9% of the federal poverty guideline. 17
  • In 2004, Michigan spent $1,281,075,227 in TANF funds, including 31.3% on basic assistance, 2.6% on child care, nd 70.2% on nonassistance. 18
  • In 2005, Michigan collected and distributed $1,381,521,685 in child support funds, a decrease of 2.3% from 2004. 19
  • In 2005, the fair market rent for a two-bedroom apartment in Michigan was $724 per month. The wage necessary to afford this two-bedroom apartment was $13.92 per hour, working a 40-hour week. 20

CHILD CARE AND HEAD START

  • In 2005, Michigan had an estimated monthly average of 79,300 children served by subsidized child care; 44,500 children received subsidized child care in 2004, and 61,200 in 2003. 21
  • In 2006, to be eligible for subsidized child care in Michigan, a family of three could make no more than $23,880, which is equivalent to 41% of the state's median income. 22
  • In 2006, Michigan had no children on its waiting list for child care assistance. 23
  • In 2005, Head Start served 35,069 Michigan children, a 0.2% decrease from 2004. 24

HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE

  • In 2002, 844,800 children younger than 19 were enrolled in Medicaid in Michigan, representing 55.3% of the total number of enrollees. 25
  • In 2001, 40,564 foster and adopted children were enrolled in Medicaid in Michigan, representing 5.2% of all children in Medicaid. 26
  • In 2001, Michigan spent $64,114,279 on Medicaid services for children in foster care, and $1,581 on Medicaid services per foster care enrollee. 27
  • Michigan reported spending $3,156,120.00 of its total Medicaid expendi-tures in 2001 on targeted case management services for foster children. 28
  • In 2005, Michigan had 89,257 children enrolled in its State Children's Health Insurance Program, a 1.9% increase from 2004, when 87,563 children were enrolled. 29
  • In 2003, 10,706 babies were born weighing less than 2,500 grams, giving Michigan a ranking of 42 nationally in number of low-weight births (1 being the best, and 50 the worst). 30
  • In 2003, 1,119 infants younger than 1 year died in Michigan, giving the state a ranking of 43 nationally in infant mortality rates (1 being the best, and 50 the worst). 31
  • In 2004, the birth rate for teens age 15-17 in Michigan was 17.7 births per 1,000 girls; for teens 18-19, the rate was 59.2. This reflects a total rate of 34.1 births per 1,000 girls ages 15-19. 32
  • Cumulative through 2004, 13,521 adults and adolescents, as well as 110 children younger than 13, were reported as having HIV/AIDS in Michigan. 33
  • In 2004, an estimated 85,000 children age 12-17, and 460,000 adults 26 and older, were dependent on or abusing illicit drugs or alcohol in Michigan. 34

VULNERABLE YOUTH

  • In 2004, 667 children aged-out of out-of-home care in Michigan. 35
  • In 2004, 38,000 Michigan teens age 16-19 were high school dropouts. 36
  • In 2004, 8% of teens age 16-19 were not enrolled in school, were not working, and had no degree beyond high school. 37
  • In 2004, approximately 52,000 children age 12-17 in Michigan needed, but had not received, treatment for illicit drug use in the past year. 38
  • In 2004, approximately 52,000 children age 12-17 needed, but had not received, treatment for alcohol use in the past year. 39
  • In 2003, 60 children and youth younger than 20 committed suicide, a rate of 2.12 per 100,000 children. 40

JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION

  • In 2003, 22 children under age 18 were killed in firearm homicides in Michigan, a 31% decrease from 32 in 2002. 41
  • In 2005, 45,934 children younger than 18 were arrested in Michigan, a 17.1% increase from 39,224 arrests in 2004. Of the arrests in 2005, 2,396 were for violent crimes and 953 were for possession of a weapon. 42
  • A 2003 census of juvenile offenders showed 2,706 children in juvenile correction facilities in Michigan. 43

FUNDING CHILD WELFARE SERVICES FOR MICHIGAN'S CHILDREN

  • In 2004, Michigan spent $809,789,367 for child welfare services. Child welfare services are all direct and administrative services the state agency provides to children and families. 44 Of this amount, 62% was from federal funds, 33% was from state funds, and 5% was from local funds. 45
  • In 2004, of the $504,604,730 in federal funds received for child welfare, 45% was from Title IV-E Foster Care and Adoption Assistance, 4% came from Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families, 9% came from the Social Services Block Grant, 41% was from TANF, and 1% came from other federal sources. 46
  • Out of 21,173 children in out-of-home care in Michigan on September 30, 2004, only 6,687 , or 31.6%, received Title IV-E federal foster care assistance. 47

MICHIGAN'S CHILD WELFARE WORKFORCE

  • A 2003 General Accounting Office (GAO) report documented that staff shortages, high caseloads, high worker turnover and low salaries impinge on delivering services to achieve safety, permanence, and well-being for children. 48
  • The federal Child and Family Service Reviews have demonstrated clearly that the more time a caseworker spends with a child and family, the better the outcomes for those children and families. 49
  • According to the 2003 GAO report, the average caseload for child welfarefoster care caseworkers is 24-31 children; these high caseloads contribute to high worker turnover and insufficient services provided to children and families. CWLA recommends that foster care caseworkers have caseloads of 12-15 children. 50

REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division (2005). Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 (NST-EST2005-01). Retrieved online September 18, 2006. Washington, DC: Author. back
  2. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, Population Reference Bureau. (2006). Special tabulations of the supplementary survey. Washington, DC: Author. back
  3. U.S. Bureau of the Census (2006). Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2005. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  4. U.S. Bureau of the Census (2006). Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Poverty Status by State: 2005 Below 100% and 125% of Poverty--People Under 18 Years of Age. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  5. U.S. Bureau of the Census (2006). 2005 American Community Survey, Selected Economic Characteristics. Retrieved January 23, 2007. back
  6. Ibid. back
  7. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF). (2006). Child Maltreatment 2004: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). back
  8. Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). (2006). Special tabulation of the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System AFCARS). Washington, DC: Author. back
  9. "Other races and ethnicities" includes Asian, Pacific Islander, Hawaiian Native, unknown or unable to determine, missing data and two or more races; CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2006. back
  10. Ibid. back
  11. Ibid.; CWLA. (2005). Special tabulation from AFCARS. back
  12. CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2006. back
  13. U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). American Community Survey, Data Profile. Selected Social Characteristics: 2005. Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  14. CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2006. back
  15. Ibid. back
  16. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (2006, 2005). Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Separate State Program-Maintenance of Effort Aid to Families with Dependant Children: Caseload Data. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  17. Calculations by CWLA, based on Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (2004). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program: Sixth Annual Report to Congress. (Table 1:14, Average Monthly Amount of Assistance per Family and per Recipient Fiscal Year 2002). Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Food and Nutrition Service. (2005). Food Stamp Program--Annual State Level Data--State Level Participation. Food Stamp Program: Average Monthly Benefit Per Household (FY 2002). Retrieved online October 13, 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2002). The 2002 HHS Poverty Guidelines. Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  18. Administration for Children and Families. (2004). TANF Financial Data. Table F: Combined Spending of Federal and States Funds Expended in FY 2004 Through the Fourth Quarter. Retrieved online January 23, 2007, from www.acf.hhs.govprograms/ofs/data/2004/tableF_2004.html. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  19. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement. (2006). Child Support Enforcement, FY 2005 Preliminary Data. Table 3--Total Distributed Collections, FY 2005. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement. (2005). Child Support Enforcement Program Results for FY 2004. Table 3--Total Distributed Collections, FY 2004. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  20. Pitcoff, W.; Pelletiere, D.; Crowley, S.; Treskon, M.; & Dolbeare, C. (2005). Out of Reach 2005. Retrieved online, September 27, 2006. Washington, DC: National Low Income Housing Coalition. back
  21. Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2005). FFY 2005 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2003). FFY 2003 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2004). FFY 2004 CCDF Data Tables and Charts; Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Children and Families Served. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  22. Schulman, K. & Blank, H. (2006). State Child Care Assistance Policies 2006: Gaps Remain with New Challenges Ahead. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center. back
  23. Ibid. back
  24. Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau. (2006). Head Start fact sheet. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS; Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau. (2005). Head Start program fact sheet. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  25. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2006). Medicaid enrollment by group, FFY 2002. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Menlo Park, CA: Author. back
  26. Geen, R., Sommers, A., & Cohen, M. (2005). Medicaid Spending on Foster Children. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  27. Ibid. back
  28. Urban Institute estimates based on data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2001). Medicaid Statistical Information System, Summary File, Baltimore: Author. back
  29. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2006). FY 2005 number of children ever enrolled year--SCHIP by program type. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  30. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low-birthweight babies: Number: 2003. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  31. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count. State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant Mortality: Number: 2003. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  32. Martin, J.A.; Hamilton, B.E.; Sutton, P.D.; Ventura, S.J.; Menacker, F.; & Kirmeyer, S. (2006). Births: Final data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports 55(1). Retrieved January 23, 2007. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. back
  33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2004. Vol. 16. Retrieved online January 23, 2007. Atlanta: Author. back
  34. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies. (2006). State estimates of substance use from the 2003-2004 national surveys on drug use and health. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Rockville, MD: Author. back
  35. Children who aged out of foster care are captured by the AFCARS emancipation data element. Children who exit care to emancipation are those who reached the age of majority; AFCARS. back
  36. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author; Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2000. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  37. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author; Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2006). Kids Count data book indicators: Teens who are high school dropouts: Number: 2000. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Baltimore: Author. back
  38. SAMHSA, State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2003-2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Healthback
  39. Ibid. back
  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2006). Injury Mortality Reports, 1999-2004. Retrieved online, January 23, 2007. Atlanta: Author. back
  41. Ibid. back
  42. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2006). Crime in the United States 2005 (Table 69). Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author; Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2006). Crime in the United States 2004 (Table 69). Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  43. Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., & and Kang, W. (2005). Census of juveniles in residential placement databook. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. back
  44. Examples of direct services include child abuse and neglect investigations, foster care, community-based programs, case management, and all such services required for the safety, permanency, and well-being of children. Examples of administrative services include management information systems, training programs, eligibility determination processes, and all services that provide the infrastructure supports for the public agency. back
  45. Scarcella, C.A.; Bess, R.; Zielewski, E.H.; & Geen, R. (2006). The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children V: Understanding State Variation in Child Welfare Financing. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  46. Ibid. back
  47. CWLA, Special tabulation from AFCARS, 2005. back
  48. U.S. General Accounting Office. (March 2003). Child Welfare: HHS Could Play a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staff. Retrieved online, January 17, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  49. Ibid. back
  50. Ibid. back




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