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Home > Advocacy > National Fact Sheet 2009

 
 

National Fact Sheet 2009

The Nation's Children 2009

America's Children: A Snapshot

   Child population under age 18 (2007) 73,901,733 1
   White children (not Hispanic) under 18 (2007) 57.0% 2
   Nonwhite children under 18 (2007) 43.0% 3
   Children and youth (under 14) (2007) 76.7% 4
   Children and youth (ages 14-17) (2007) 23.3% 5

America's Most Vulnerable Children: A Snapshot

   Estimated referrals of possible child abuse and neglect (2006) 3,300,000 6
   Children substantiated/indicated as abused or neglected (2006) 905,000 7
   Children who died as a result of abuse or neglect (2006) 1,530 8
   Children living in out-of-home care (2006) 510,885 9
   Children adopted from the public foster care system (2006) 50,705 10
   Children waiting to be adopted (2006) 139,064 11
   Children living in poverty (2007) 13,247,238 12
   Children living in low-income families (2007) 28,803,055 13
   National Poverty Rate (2007) 12.5% 14
   National Poverty Rate for children under age 18 (2007) 18.0% 15
   National Poverty Rate for children ages 5-17(2007) 16.8% 16
   National Poverty Rate for children birth to age 5 (2007) 21.2% 17

Child Abuse and Neglect

  • In 2006, approximately 3.3 million allegations of child abuse and neglect including 6 million children were made to CPS agencies. Of those, 2,271,160 reports were referred for investigation, as reported by 42 states. 18

  • During federal fiscal year 2006, an estimated 905,000 children in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico were determined to be victims of abuse or neglect. Of these children, 64.1% were neglected, 16% were physically abused, and 8.8% were sexually abused. The victimization rate was 12.1 per 1,000 children, a 3.2% decrease from 2001. 19

  • Of the children substantiated as abused and neglected, only 58.9% received follow-up services. Of those reported as abused and neglected but not substantiated, 30.3% received follow-up services. One-fifth (21.5%) of children substantiated as abused or neglected were placed in foster care as a result of an investigation. 20

  • In 2006, 1,530 children died as a result of abuse or neglect. 21

  • In 2006, 510,885 children in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico lived apart from their families in out-of-home care, compared with 506,483 children in 2005. Of these children, 33% were age 5 or younger, and 20.4% were 16 or older. 22

  • Of the children living in out-of-home care in 2006, 40% were white, 34% black, 18% Hispanic, 2% American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 7% children of other races and ethnicities. 23

Permanent Families for Children

  • Of the 286,170 children exiting out-of-home care in the United States in 2006, 53% were reunited with their parents or other family members. 24

  • In 2006, approximately 50,703 children were legally adopted through public child welfare agencies, a 1.1% decrease from 51,278 in 2005. 25

  • Of the 510,885 children in out-of-home care in 2006, 129,311, or 25.3%, were waiting to be adopted. 26

Kinship Support

  • In 2007, approximately 2,514,256 grandparents nationwide had primary responsibility caring for their grandchildren. 27

  • Of the 510,885 children in out-of-home care in 2006, 23.9% were living with relatives while in care. 28

  • Of all children in kinship care in 2006, 47.4% were white, 26.3% black, 14.1% Hispanic, 2.2% Native American, and 10% other races. 29

Child Poverty and Income Support

  • The percent of children under 18 living in poverty increased from 16.2% in 2000 to 18.0% in 2007. 30

  • The total number of individuals receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in the United States declined from 4,230,951 in March 2006 to 3,787,626 in March 2008, a decrease of 11.7%. The number of families receiving TANF in March 2008 was 1,629,835, a 9.8% decrease from 1,807,823 in 2006. 31

  • In 2007, approximately $5.4 billion was spent on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infant, and Child, serving 8.285 million participants. 32

  • In 2007, nearly $24.8 billion in child support funds were collected and distributed in the United States, an increase of 3.8% from 2006. 33

Child Care and Head Start

  • In 2006, an estimated monthly average of 1,770,100 of the nation's children received subsidized child care; 1,746,100 children were served in 2005, and 1,732,500 in 2004. 34

  • In 2007, Head Start served 908,412 children, a 0.1% decrease from 2006, and a 0.43% decrease from 2002 when 912,345 children were enrolled in Head Start. 35

  • In 2007, federal funding for the Child Care and Development Block Grant was $4.979 billion. The amount of TANF funds used for child care, however, has declined steadily from its peak of $4 billion in 2000 to $3.1 billion in 2007. 36

  • Child care subsidies fall far short of meeting the need. Without an increase in funding, 200,000 children are expected to lose child care assistance between 2007 and 2009. 37

  • Income eligibility limits for obtaining child care assistance remained low in 2008. More than three-quarters of states capped eligibility at or below 200% of the federal poverty level (FPL). In most communities, a family needs an income equal to at least 200% of FPL ($35,200 a year for a family of 3 in 2008) to meet its basic needs, including housing, food, child care, transportation, health care and other necessities. 38

  • As of early 2008, an estimated 380,240 children nationwide were on the waiting list for subsidized child care, an increase of 4% from 2007. 39

  • In 2008, a family at 150% FPL in 31 states had to pay a copayment of more than $141 per month (6.4% of income). In six states, a family at this income level wasn't even eligible for child care assistance.40 40

  • In 2008, only 10 states paid child care providers at the 75th percentile of current market rates, compared with 22 states in 2001. 41

Health

Pregnancy and Parenting
  • In 2006, 6,405 babies were born to girls younger than 15, a slight decline from 2005. Another 435,427 babies were born to girls age 15 to 19 in 2005-a rate of 41.9 births per 1,000 for that age group. This is a 3% decline from 2005. 42

  • Females who have been in foster care also have higher birth rates than those who have not been in foster care (31.6% vs. 12.2%) and higher subsequent pregnancy rates (46% vs. 29%). By age 19, nearly half of surveyed females in foster care report ever having been pregnant, whereas only 20% of females never in foster care have ever been pregnant. 43

  • Teen childbearing costs taxpayers $9.1 billion annually, with $2.3 billion falling on the child welfare system, because children born to teen mothers are at increased risk of ending up in foster care and child protective services. 44
Newborn Health and Infant Mortality
  • Nationally, in 2005, 338,565 babies were born weighing less than 2,500 grams. Low-birthweight babies accounted for 8.2% of all births in 2004, compared with 7.6% in 2000. 45

  • During 2005, 28,440 infants younger than 1 year died in the United States, amounting to about 78 infant deaths each day. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.9 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2005. 46
HIV/AIDS
  • From the beginning of the epidemic through 2006, 1,014,797 adults and adolescents, as well as 9,156 children younger than 13, and 15,860 young people under the age of 20, were diagnosed as having HIV/AIDS in the United States. 47

Child and Youth Mental Health

  • Recent estimates show approximately 1 in 5 children with a diagnosable mental disorder and 1 in 10 with a severe emotional or behavioral disorder causing significant impaired functioning at home, at school, or in the community. 48

  • In 2007, 3.1 million youths (12.5% of the population) received treatment or counseling for emotional or behavior problems in the year prior. 49

  • Co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders are increasingly prevalent for youth treated for substance abuse disorders, with 80%-85% also having a mental health disorder. 50

  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death in youth ages 15-24. In 2005, 4,212 youths in this age range committed suicide in the United States, a rate of 10.0 per 100,000 adolescents in the population. 51

  • Half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14, and 75% have begun by age 24; thus, mental disorders are really the chronic diseases of the young. 52

  • In any given year, only 20% of children with mental disorders are identified and receive mental health services. 53
Foster Care and Mental Health
  • Between one-half and three-fourths of children entering foster care exhibit behavior or social competency problems that warrant mental health care. 54

  • Eighty-five percent of foster care youth are estimated to have an emotional disorder and/or substance abuse problem; 30% have severe behavioral, emotional, or developmental problems. 55

  • More than half (54.4%) of adult participants who were placed in foster care as children have experienced symptoms of one or more mental health problems in the last 12 months, and 25% suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, a rate nearly double that of U.S. war veterans. 56

  • Three out of four youth in child welfare who meet a stringent criterion for need don't not receiving mental health care within 12 months after a child abuse and neglect investigation. 57
Foster Care and Medicaid
  • In 2005, 953,351 children were enrolled in Medicaid on the basis of being in foster care, representing approximately 3.1% of all children enrolled in Medicaid. 58

  • Of the 953,351 children enrolled in Medicaid in 2005, 118,411, received targeted case management (TCM) services, and 108,110 received rehabilitative services. 59

  • Children in foster care receiving TCM services are more likely to receive other important services, such as physician, prescription drug, dental, and home health services, than are children in foster care who do not receive TCM services. 60

  • Although children in foster care represent only 3.7% of the nondisabled children enrolled in Medicaid, they account for 12.3% of expenditures for the same group. 61

  • Although children in foster care represent a very small percentage of Medicaid enrollees, they account for 25%-41% of Medicaid mental health expenditures. 62

Substance Abuse

  • In 2007, 23.2 million people age 12 or older needed treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use problems (9.4% of the population age 12 or older). 63

  • In 2007, 2.4 million people age 12 or older (10.4% of those needing treatment) received treatment at a specialty facility for a problem related to the use of alcohol or illicit drugs. 64

  • Parental addiction is a significant factor in child abuse and neglect. Studies suggest 40%-80% of families in the child welfare system are affected by it. 65

  • The 2005 National Study on Child and Adolescent Well-Being found that among children who were in out-of-home care, prior to removal, 46.1% of their caregivers had a problem with alcohol or drugs, according to the child welfare worker assessment. 66

  • In a survey by the National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research, 85% of states reported substance abuse was one of the two major problems exhibited by families in which maltreatment was suspected. 67

  • Abused and neglected children from substance abusing families are more likely to be placed in foster care and are more likely to remain there longer than are maltreated children from nonsubstance abusing families. 68

  • Of sheriffs responding to a 2007 National Association of Counties survey, 40% reported increases in domestic violence and child abuse and endangerment due to parental methamphetamine use in the past year. 69

  • Between 2002 and 2005, 12,077 children were residing or visiting when a methamphetamine lab was seized by local or federal law enforcement. 70

Vulnerable Youth

  • In 2006, 26,154 children aged out of out-of-home care. 71

  • In 2007, 7% of teenagers age 16-19 (or 1,172,000) were high school dropouts, an 18% decrease from 2001. It represents a 2% increase, however, from 2006. 72

  • In 2007, 8% of teens age 16-19 were not enrolled in school and not working. 73

  • Among youth age 12-17, 1.1 million (4.5%) who needed treatment for illicit drug use problems in 2007. Of this group, only 111,000 received treatment at a specialty facility (9.9% of those who needed treatment), leaving 1 million youth who needed treatment but did not receive it at a specialty facility. 74

  • In 2005, 1,885 children under age 20 committed suicide in the United States, a rate of 2.31 per 100,000 children in the population. 75

  • A multiyear study in one state showed that among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in grades 9-12, 34% were threatened or injured at school, compared with 7% of heterosexual students; 25% skipped school because they felt unsafe, compared with 5% of heterosexual students; and 45% attempted suicide, compared with 8% of heterosexual students. 76

  • A study of young adults who had spent a year or more in foster care between the ages of 14 and 18 found that 25% experience post-traumatic stress, compared with 4% of the general adult population. 77

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

  • In 2005, 1,993 children age 19 and younger were killed in firearm homicides nationwide, an 8% increase from 1,844 in 2004. 78

  • In 2007, 1,626,523 children under age 18 were arrested, a 1.4% increase from 1,626,523 arrests in 2006. Of the arrests in 2007, 73,427 were for violent crimes and 33,187 were for possession of a weapon. 79

  • A 2006 census of juvenile offenders showed 92,854 children in juvenile correction facilities in the United States, a 4% decrease from 96,655 children in 2003. 80

Funding Child Welfare Services

  • In 2006, the United States spent $25.7 billion for child welfare services. Child welfare services refer to all direct and administrative services the state agency provides to children and families. Of this amount, 48% was from federal funds, 41% was from state funds, and 11% was from local funds. 81

  • In 2006, of the $12.4 billion federal dollars spent for child welfare, 48% was Title IV-E Foster Care and Adoption Assistance, 5% was from Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families, 13% was Medicaid, 12% was from the Social Services Block Grant, 19% was TANF, and 3% was from other federal sources, including Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Survivor Benefits. 82

  • Out of 504,224 children in out-of-home care in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2006, only 205,265 children, or 41%, received Title IV-E federal foster care assistance. 83

Child Welfare Workforce

  • A 2003 General Accounting Office (GAO) report documented that staff shortages, high caseloads, high worker turnover, and low salaries impinge on the delivery of services to achieve safety, permanence, and well being for children. 84

  • The GAO report cited the average caseload for a child welfare/foster care caseworker was 24-31 and that these high caseloads contributed to high worker turnover rates and insufficient services being provided to children and families. 85

  • According to a 2005 child welfare workforce survey, the average caseload size, where child is defined as the case, was 26.3 for child protective service workers. CWLA recommends a CPS caseworker responsible for initial assessment and investigation have no more than 12 active cases per month. 86

  • The average minimum salary for a caseworker responsible for investigating reports of abuse and neglect was $32,438.50 in 2004; the median income for a family of four in the U.S. was $75,319.60. 87

  • The average vacancy rate for child protective service workers at public agencies was 8.5% in 2004, down from 9.3% in 2000. The average time required to fill a vacant child protective service position was 10 weeks. 88

  • The turnover rate for child protective workers increased from 19.9% in 2000 to 22.1% in 2004. 89

  • The findings of the federal Child and Family Service Reviews have clearly demonstrated the more time a caseworker spends with a child and family, the better the outcomes for that child and family. 90
Also available:
  • This document in PDF format. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2008.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2007.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2007.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2007.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2006.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2003.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2002.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2001.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2000.

Sources

  1. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). National Sex and Age (NC-EST2007-02). In National Population Estimates-Characteristics. Retrieved online November 10, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  2. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). National Sex, Age, Race and Hispanic Origin (NC-EST2007-04). In National Population Estimates-Characteristics. Retrieved online November 10, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  3. Ibid. back
  4. Census Bureau, National Sex and Age (NC-EST2007-02). back
  5. Ibid. back
  6. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF). (2008). Chapter 2. In Child Maltreatment 2006. Retrieved online November 10, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). back
  7. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2008). Summary. In Child Maltreatment 2006. Retrieved online November 12, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  8. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2008). Table 4-1, Child Maltreatment 2006. Retrieved online November 12, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  9. This number includes children in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. CWLA. (2008). Special tabulation of the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System (AFCARS). Washington, DC: Author. back
  10. Ibid. back
  11. Ibid. back
  12. National Center for Children in Poverty. (2008). Low-Income Children in the United States: National and State Trend Data, 1997-2007. Retrieved online November 12, 2008, New York: Author. back
  13. Ibid. back
  14. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Current Population Survey, POV01: Age and Sex of All People, Family Members and Unrelated Individuals Iterated by Income-to-Poverty Ratio and Race: 2007. Retrieved online November 12, 2008, Washington, DC: Author. back
  15. Ibid. back
  16. Ibid. back
  17. Ibid. back
  18. ACYF, Chapter 2, Child Maltreatment 2006, Available online.
    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2008). Table 2-1. In Child Maltreatment 2006. Retrieved online, October 12, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  19. ACYF, Summary, Child Maltreatment 2006, Available online.
    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2008). Table 3-2. In Child Maltreatment 2006. Retrieved online October 12, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  20. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2008). Chapter 6. In Child Maltreatment 2006, Retrieved online October 12, 2008. back
  21. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2008). Table 4-1. Child Maltreatment 2006. Retrieved online October 12, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  22. CWLA, Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  23. Ibid. back
  24. Ibid. back
  25. Ibid. back
  26. Ibid. back
  27. U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). Data Profiles: Selected Social Characteristics. In American Community Survey. Retrieved online November 12, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  28. Child Welfare League of America. (2008). Special tabulation of the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System. Washington, DC: Author. back
  29. Ibid. back
  30. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008) Current Population, Survey People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2006 and 2007. Retrieved online November 12, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  31. Administration for Children and Families. (2007). Caseload Data. Retrieved online October 12, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  32. Food and Nutrition Service. WIC Program (2008) WIC Program Participation and Cost. Retrieved online November 24, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. back
  33. Administration for Children and Families. (2007). Financial Overview, FY2006 and FY2007. Retrieved online November 17, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  34. Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2008). FY 2006 CCDF Data Tables: Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Families and Children Served. Retrieved online November 12, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  35. Administration for Children and Families. (2008). Head Start Program Fact Sheets. Retrieved online November 20, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  36. Schulman, K., & Blank, H. (2007). State Child Care Assistance Policies 2008: Too Little Progress for Children and Families. Retrieved online February 9, 2009. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center. back
  37. Ibid. back
  38. Ibid. back
  39. Ibid. back
  40. Ibid. back
  41. Ibid. back
  42. Hamilton, B.E.; Martin, J.A.; & Ventura, S.J. (2008). Births: Preliminary data for 2006. In National Vital Statistics Reports (Vol. 56 No. 7). Retrieved online November 20, 2008. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. back
  43. Bilaver, L.A., & Courtney, M.E. (2006). Science Says: Foster Care. Retrieved online December 10, 2008. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. back
  44. Hoffman, S.D. (2006). By the Numbers: The Public Costs of Teen Childbearing. Retreived online December 10, 2008. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. back
  45. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low-birthweight babies: Number: 2005. In Kids Count. Retrieved online February 9, 2009. Baltimore: Author. back
  46. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant mortality: Number: 2004. In Kids Count. Retrieved online February 9, 2009. Baltimore: Author. back
  47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2006. In HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report (Vol. 18, revised April 2008). Retrieved online November 20, 2008. Atlanta: Author. back
  48. Huang, L.N. (2004). Transforming Mental Health Care for Children and Families [Special Edition]. Networks, 8 (3-4). Retrieved online October 31, 2006. back
  49. Office of Applied Studies. (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343). Retrieved online November 16, 2008. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). back
  50. Huang. Transforming Mental Health Care for Children and Families. back
  51. American Association of Suicidology. (2008). United States Suicide Statistics: Year 2005 Official Final Data on Suicide in the United States. Retrieved online November 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  52. National Institute of Mental Health. (2005, June). National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Retrieved online October 4, 2006. Bethesda, MD: Author. back
  53. U.S. Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A National Action Agenda. Retrieved online October 4, 2006. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  54. Landsverk, J.A., Burns, B.A., Stambaugh, L.F., & Rolls Reutz, J.A. (2006). Mental Health Care for Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Literature. Retrived online October 22, 2007. Seattle: Casey Family Programs. back
  55. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2002). Policy Statements: AACAP/CWLA Foster Care Mental Health Values Subcommittee. Retrieved online October 20, 2006. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2005, May). Facts for Families: Foster Care (no. 64). Retrieved online October 20, 2006. back
  56. Pecora, P.; Kessler, R.; Williams, J.; O'Brien, K.; Downs, A.C.; English, D.; White, J.; Hiripi, E.; White, C.R.; Wiggins, T.; & Holmes, K. (2005). Improving Family Foster Care: Findings From the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study. Retrieved online September 25, 2006. Seattle: Casey Family Programs. back
  57. Burns, B.J., Phillips, S.D., Wagner, H.R., Barth, R.P., Kolko, D.J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 960-970. back
  58. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). (2008). FFY 2005 Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) annual summary file. Retrieved online November 22, 2008. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  59. Ibid. back
  60. Geen, R., Sommers, A.S., & Cohen, M. (2005). Medicaid Spending on Foster Children. Retrieved online October 21, 2005. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  61. Ibid. back
  62. Rubin, D.M., Alessandrini, E.A., Feudtner, C., Mandell, D.S., Localio, A.R., and Hadley, T. (2004). Placement stability and mental health costs for children in foster care. Pediatrics, 113(5), 1336-1341. Retrieved online November 10, 2006. back
  63. SAMSHA, Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findingsback
  64. Ibid. back
  65. Rubenstein, G. (2003). Safe and Sound: Models for Collaboration Between the Child Welfare & Addiction Treatment Systems. Retrieved online November 7, 2006. New York: The Legal Action Center of the Arthur Liman Policy Institute. back
  66. Young, N.K., Nakashian, M., Yeh, S., & Amatetti, S. (2007). Screening and Assessment for Family Engagement, Retention, and Recovery (SAFERR), [DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 07-4261]. Retrieved online October 16, 2007. Rockville, MD: SAMSHA. back
  67. National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research. (2001). Current Trends in Child Abuse Prevention, Reporting, and Fatalities: The 1999 Fifty State Survey. Chicago: Prevent Child Abuse America. back
  68. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground: A Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection. Retrieved online November 7, 2006. Washington, DC: Author. back
  69. National Association of Counties. (2007, July). The Meth Epidemic: The Changing Demographics of Methamphetamine. Retrieved online October 16, 2007. Washington, DC: Author. back
  70. Office of National Drug Control Policy (2005). Drug Endangered Children. Retrieved online February 10, 2009. Washington, DC: Author. back
  71. Children who age out of foster care are captured by the AFCARS emancipation data element. Children who exit care to emancipation are those who reach the age of majority according to state law by virtue of age, marriage, etc. CWLA, Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  72. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2008). State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Education 2001-2007. In Kids Count. Retrieved online November 16, 2008. Baltimore, MD: Author. back
  73. Ibid. back
  74. Office of Applied Studies (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343). Retrieved online November 16, 2008. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA. back
  75. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). WISQARS Injury Mortality Reports, 1999-2004. Retrieved online October 16, 2007. Atlanta: CDC. back
  76. Goodenow, C. (2003). Violence-Related Experiences of Sexual Minority Youth: Looking at Data from the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995-2001. Springfield: Massachusetts Department of Education. back
  77. Ibid. back
  78. Pecora, P.; Kessler, R.; Williams, J.; O'Brien, K.; Downs, A.C.; English, D.; White, J.; Hiripi, E.; White, C.R.; Wiggins, T.; & Holmes, K. (2005) Improving Family Foster Care: Findings From the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study. Retrieved online September 25, 2006. Seattle: Casey Family Programs.Pecora et al., Improving family foster care: Findings from the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Studyback
  79. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2008). Table 38. In Crime in the United States 2007. Retrieved online November 18, 2008. Washington, DC: Author. back
  80. Sickmund, M.; Sladky, T.J.; & Kang, W. (2008). Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook. Retrieved online November 20, 2008. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. back
  81. Examples of direct services include child abuse and neglect investigations, foster care, community-based programs, case management, and such services required for the safety, permanency, and well being of children. Examples of administrative services include management information systems, training programs, eligibility determination processes, and all services that provide the infrastructure supports for the public agency. DeVooght, K.; Allen, T.; & Geen, R. (2008). Federal, State, and Local Spending to Address Child Abuse in SFY 2006. Washington, DC: Child Trends. back
  82. Ibid. back
  83. CWLA, Special AFCARS tabulation. back
  84. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). (March 2003). Child Welfare: HHS Could Plan a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staff. Retrieved online October 31, 2006. Washington, DC: Author. back
  85. Ibid. back
  86. National Data Analysis System (NDAS). (March 2007). Issue Brief: Child Welfare Workforce. Retrieved online October 31, 2007. Washington, DC: Author.
    CWLA. (1999). CWLA Standards of Excellence of Child Welfare Services. Retrieved online February 10, 2009. Washington, DC: Author. back
  87. CWLA. (2005). 2005 Salary Study. Washington, DC: Author.
    NDAS, Issue Brief: Child Welfare Workforceback
  88. American Public Human Services Association. (2005). State Agency Findings. In Report from the 2004 Child Welfare Workforce Survey. Retrieved online October 31, 2006. Washington, DC: Author. back
  89. Ibid. back
  90. GAO, Child Welfare: HHS Could Plan a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staffback




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