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Home > Advocacy > National Fact Sheet 2008

 
 

National Fact Sheet 2008

The Nation's Children 2008

America's Children: A Snapshot

   Child population under age 18, 2006 1 73,735,562
   White children (not Hispanic) under 18, 2006 2 57.6%
   Nonwhite children under 18, 2006 3 42.4%
   Children and youth (under 14), 2006 4 76.6%
   Children and youth (ages 14-17), 2006 5 23.4%

America's Most Vulnerable Children: A Snapshot

   Estimated referrals of possible child abuse and neglect, 2005 6 3,300,000
   Children substantiated/indicated as abused or neglected, 2005 7 899,000
   Children who died as a result of abuse or neglect, 2005 8 1,460
   Children living in out-of-home care 2005 9 506,483
   Children adopted from the public foster care system, 2005 10 51,278
   Children waiting to be adopted, 2005 11 122,195
   Children living in poverty, 2006 12 12,723,022
   Children living in low-income families, 2006 13 28,557,921
   National Poverty Rate, 2006 14 12.3%
   National Poverty Rate for children under age 18, 2006 15 17.4%
   National Poverty Rate for children ages 5-17, 2006 16 16.1%
   National Poverty Rate for children birth to age 5, 2006 17 20.7%

Child Abuse and Neglect

  • In 2005, child protection agencies received an estimated 3.3 million allegations of child abuse and neglect involving 6 million children. 18 Of those, 2,176,425 reports were referred for investigation, as reported by 39 states. 19

  • During federal fiscal year 2005, an estimated 899,000 children in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico were substantiated or indicated to be victims of abuse or neglect. Of these children, 62.8% were neglected, 16.6% were physically abused, and 9.3% were sexually abused. 20 The victimization rate was 12.1 per 1,000 children, representing a 3.2% decrease from 2001. 21

  • Of the children substantiated as abused and neglected, only 60.4% received follow-up services. Of the children reported as abused and neglected but not substantiated, 26.9% received follow-up services. One-fifth of victims (21.7%) were placed in foster care as a result of an investigation. 22

  • In 2005, 1,371 children died as a result of abuse or neglect. 23

  • In 2005, 506,483 children lived apart from their families in out-of-home care, compared with 509,662 children in 2004. Of the children living apart from their families, 32% were age 5 or younger, and 20.4% were 16 or older. 24

  • Of the children living in out-of-home care in 2005, 41.1% were white, 32.9% black, 17.3% Hispanic, 2.1% American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 6.7% were children of other races and ethnicities. 25

Permanent Families for Children

  • Of the 286,005 children exiting out-of-home care in the United States in 2005, 64.1% were reunited with their parents or other family members. 26

  • In 2005, approximately 51,278 children were legally adopted through the public child welfare agency, a 1.4% decrease from 51,993 in 2004. 27a>

  • Of the 506,483 children in out-of-home care in 2005, 122,195 or 24.1% were waiting to be adopted. 28

Kinship Support

  • In 2006, approximately 2,455,102 grandparents across the country had primary responsibility caring for their grandchildren. 29

  • Of the 506,483 children in out-of-home care in 2005, 23.9% were living with relatives while in care. 30

  • Of all the children in kinship care in 2005, 36.9% were white, 35.5% black, 18.8% Hispanic, 2.2% Native American, and 6.5% were all other races. 31

Child Poverty and Income Support

  • The percent of children under 18 living in poverty increased from 16.2% in 2000, to 17.4% in 2006, representing a 7.4% increase. 32

  • The total number of individuals receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in the United States declined from 4,230,951 in March 2006, to 3,997,785 in March 2007, a decrease of 5.4%. 33 The number of families receiving TANF in March 2007 was 1,711,048, a 5.7% decrease from 2006. 34

  • In 2006, nearly $24 billion in child support funds were collected and distributed in the United States, an increase of 4% from 2005. 35

Child Care and Head Start

  • In 2005, an estimated monthly average of 1,746,100 of the nation's children received subsidized child care; 1,732,500 children were served in 2004, and 1,751,300 children were served in 2003. 36

  • In 2006, Head Start served 909,201 children, a 0.24% increase from 2005, and a 0.3% decrease from 2002 when 912,345 children were enrolled in Head Start. 37

  • In 2007, the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) was funded at $5 billion in federal funds. More than 1.7 million children received CCDBG-funded child care in 2005; in 2006, a total of 2.3 million children received child care assistance from all sources (including CCDBG and TANF). The amount of TANF funds used for child care, however, has declined steadily from its peak of $4 billion in 2000, to $3.1 billion in 2006. 38

  • Child care subsidies fall far short of meeting the need, with less than 14% of eligible children served; in addition, approximately 150,000 children have lost child care assistance since 2000. 39

  • Income eligibility limits for obtaining child care assistance remained low in 2007, with more than two-thirds of states capping eligibility at or below 200% of the federal poverty level. In the majority of communities across the country, a family needs an income equal to at least 200% of poverty ($34,340 a year for a family of three in 2007) to meet its basic needs, including housing, food, child care, transportation, health care, and other necessities. 40

  • As of early 2007, an estimated 365,617 children nationwide were on the waiting list for subsidized child care. 41

  • In 2007, a family at 150% of poverty in 29 states was charged a copayment of above $150 per month (7% of income); in addition, in seven states families at this income level were not even eligible for child care assistance. 42

  • In 2007, less than one-fifth of states paid child care providers at 75% of an up-to-date market rate. In 2001, nearly half the states did. 43

Health

Pregnancy and Parenting
  • In 2005, 6,575 babies were born to girls under the age of 15, a slight decline from 2004. In 2005, 342,976 babies were born to girls ages 15 to 19, reflecting a rate of 40.4 births per 1,000 for that age group. This is a 2% decline from the 2004 rate of 41.1, and a 35% decrease from an all time high of 61.8 in 1991. This birth rate for teenagers is the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years of keeping this statistic. The most dramatic decline in birth rate was seen in girls age 15 to 17. Between 2005 and 2006, preliminary data suggest that rates have risen approximately 3%. 44
Newborn Health and Infant Mortality
  • Nationally in 2004, 331,772 babies were born weighing less than 2,500 grams. Low-birth weight babies were 8.1% of all births in 2004, compared to 7.6% in 2000, representing a 6.6% increase in low-weight births from 2000 to 2004. 45

  • During 2004, 27,936 infants under age 1 died in the United States, amounting to about 76 infant deaths each day. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.8 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2004, a slight decrease from a rate of 6.9 in 2003, the same as in 2000. 46
HIV/AIDS
  • From the beginning of the epidemic through 2005, 952,629 adults and adolescents, as well as 9,112 children under the age of 13, and 15,463 young people under the age of 20, were diagnosed as having HIV/AIDS in the United States. 47

Child and Youth Mental Health

  • Recent estimates show approximately 1 in 5 children with a diagnosable mental disorder and 1 in 10 with a severe emotional or behavioral disorder causing significant impaired functioning at home, at school, or in the community. 48

  • In a survey conducted in 2006, 5.4 million youth (21.3% of the population) received treatment or counseling for emotional or behavior problems over the previous 12 months. 49

  • Co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders are increasingly prevalent for youth treated for substance abuse disorders, with 80% to 85% also having a mental health disorder. 50

  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death in youth age 15 to 24. In 2004, 4,316 youth between 15 and 24 committed suicide in the United States, a rate of 10.4 per 100,000 adolescents in the population. This is a 7.5% increase over the 2003 rate of 9.67. 51

  • Half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14 and 75% have started by age 24; thus, mental disorders are really the chronic diseases of the young. 52

  • In any given year, only 20% of children with mental disorders are identified and receive mental health services. 53
Foster Care and Mental Health
  • A 2006 literature review by Casey Family Services reveals that studies show between one-half and three-fourths of children entering foster care exhibit behavior or social competency problems that warrant mental health care. 54

  • Of youth in foster care, 85% are estimated to have an emotional disorder and/or a substance abuse problem and 30% have severe behavioral, emotional, or developmental problems. 55

  • According to a recent study, more than half of adult participants (54.4%) who were placed in foster care as children have experienced symptoms of one or more mental health problems in the last 12 months, and 25% suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a rate nearly double that of U.S. war veterans. 56

  • A 2004 national study showed that 3 out of 4 youth in child welfare who meet a stringent criterion for need were not receiving mental health care within 12 months after a child abuse and neglect investigation. 57
Foster Care and Medicaid
  • In 2004, 935,225 children were enrolled in Medicaid on the basis of being in foster care, representing approximately 3.4% of all children enrolled in Medicaid. 58

  • In 2004, $350 million of the total Medicaid spending for foster children was spent on targeted case management (TCM) services and $545 million was spent on Rehabilitative Services in the United States. This is approximately 18% of total Medicaid spending. 59

  • Children in foster care receiving TCM services are much more likely to receive other important services such as physician, prescription drug, dental, and home health services than children in foster care who do not receive TCM services. 60

  • Although children in foster care represent only 3.7% of the non-disabled children enrolled in Medicaid, they account for 12.3% of expenditures for the same group. 61

  • Although children in foster care represent a very small percentage of Medicaid enrollees, they account for 25% to 41% of Medicaid mental health expenditures. 62

Substance Abuse

  • In 2006, 23.6 million persons age 12 or older needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem (9.6% of the persons age 12 or older). 63

  • In 2006, 2.5 million persons age 12 or older (10.8% of those needing treatment) received treatment at a specialty facility for a problem related to using alcohol or illicit drugs. 64

  • Parental addiction is a significant factor in child abuse and neglect cases, with studies suggesting 40% to 80% of families in the child welfare system are affected by addiction. 65

  • The 2005 National Study on Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) found that among children who were in out-of-home care, 46.1% of their caregivers had a problem with alcohol or drugs, according to the child welfare worker assessment. 66

  • In a survey by the National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research, 85% of states reported substance abuse was one of the two major problems exhibited by families in which maltreatment was suspected. 67

  • Data indicate that abused and neglected children from substance abusing families are more likely to be placed in foster care and to remain there longer than maltreated children from non-substance abusing families. 68

  • Of all sheriffs in a 2007 National Association of Counties survey, 40% reported increases in domestic violence and child abuse and endangerment cases due to parental methamphetamine use in the past year. 69

  • Between 2002 and 2005, 12,077 children were residing in or visiting a methamphetamine lab when it was seized by local or federal law enforcement. 70

Vulnerable Youth

  • In 2005, 24,211 children aged out of out-of-home care. 71

  • In 2005, 7% of teenagers age 16 to 19 (or 1,114,000 teenagers) were high school dropouts, a 28% decrease from 2000 and a 2.5% drop from the previous year. 72

  • In 2005, 8% of teens ages16 to19 were not enrolled in school and were not working. 73

  • In 2006, 1.2 million (4.8%) of youth ages 12 to 17 needed treatment for an illicit drug use problem. Of this group, only 136,000 received treatment at a specialty facility (11.2% of those who needed treatment), leaving 1.1 million youth needing treatment but did not receiving it at a specialty facility. 74

  • In 2004, 1,985 children under age 20 committed suicide in the United States, a rate of 2.43 per 100,000 children in the population. 75

  • Suicide rates for American youth rose significantly between 2003 and 2004, with a 14% increase for youth under age 19. This is the largest increase since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began collecting this data. Suicide rates for youth age 10 to 24 rose 8%, following a 28% decrease over the previous 15 years for this age group. 76

  • A multi-year study in one state showed the experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual students (GLB) in grades 9 to 12: 34% were threatened or injured at school, compared to 7% of heterosexual students; 25% of GLB students skipped school because they felt unsafe, compared to 5% of heterosexual students; 45% of GLB students attempted suicide, compared to 8% of heterosexual students. 77

  • A study of young adults who spent one year or more in foster care between age14 and 18 found that 25% experienced post-traumatic stress, compared to 4% of the general adult population. 78

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

  • In 2004, 2,677 children age 19 and under were killed in firearm deaths across the country, a 6.4% decrease from 2,849 in 2003. 79

  • In 2006, 1,626,523 children under age 18 were arrested, a 15% increase from 1,403,555 arrests in 2005. Of the arrests in 2006, 73,991 were for violent crimes and 34,700 were for possession of a weapon. 80

  • A 2003 census of juvenile offenders showed 96,655 children in juvenile correction facilities in the United States, an 8% decrease from 104,413 children in 2001. 81

Funding Child Welfare Services

  • In 2004, the country spent $23.3 billion for child welfare services, meaning all direct and administrative services the state agency provides to children and families. Of this total, 50% was from federal funds, 39% from state funds, and 11% from local funds. 82

  • In 2004, of the $11.7 billion federal dollars spent for child welfare, 50% was Title IV-E Foster Care and Adoption Assistance, 4% was Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families, 10% was Medicaid, 11% was Social Services Block Grant, 20% was TANF, and 3% was other federal sources, including Supplemental Security Income and Survivors Benefits. 83

  • Out of 509,662 children in out-of-home care in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2005, only 223,462 children, or 44%, received Title IV-E federal foster care assistance. 84

Child Welfare Workforce

  • A 2003 U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report documented that staff shortages, high caseloads, high worker turnover, and low salaries impinge on the delivery of services to achieve safety, permanence, and well-being for children. 85

  • The 2003 GAO report cites that the average caseload for a child welfare/foster care caseworker is 24 to 31 cases and that high caseloads contribute to high worker turnover rates and insufficient services being provided to children and families. 86

  • According to a 2005 child welfare workforce survey, the average caseload size, where child is defined as the case, was 26.3 for child protective service workers. 87 CWLA recommends that a CPS caseworker responsible for the initial assessment/investigation have no more than 12 active cases per month. 88

  • The average minimum salary for a caseworker responsible for investigating reports of abuse and neglect was $30,795 in 2003; the median income for a family of four in the U.S. was $75,319. 89

  • The average vacancy rate for child protective service workers at public agencies was 8.5% in 2004, down from 9.3% in 2000. The average number of weeks required to fill a vacant child protective service position was 10 weeks. 90

  • The turnover rate for child protective workers increased from 19.9% in 2000, to 22.1% in 2004. 91

  • The findings of the federal Child and Family Service Reviews have clearly demonstrated that the more time a caseworker spends with a child and family, the better the outcomes for those children and families. 92
Also available:
  • This document in PDF format. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2007.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2006.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2006.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2005.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2003.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2002.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2001.
  • The National Fact Sheet from 2000.

Sources

  1. U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). National population estimates-characteristics. National sex and age (NC-EST2006-02). Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  2. U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). National population estimates-characteristics. National sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin (NC-EST2006-04). Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  3. Ibid. back
  4. U.S. Census Bureau National population estimates-characteristics. National sex and age (NC-EST2006-02). back
  5. Ibid. back
  6. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF). (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005, Chapter 2. Available online. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). back
  7. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005, Summary. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  8. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005, Table 4-1. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  9. Child Welfare League of America. (2007). Special tabulation of the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System. Washington, DC: Author. back
  10. Ibid. back
  11. Ibid. back
  12. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University. (2007) Low-income children in the United States: National and state trend data, 1996-2006. Available online. New York: Author. back
  13. Ibid. back
  14. U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2006, [Current Population Reports, P60-233]. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  15. U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). 2007 Annual social and economic supplement, [Current Population Survey]. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  16. Ibid back
  17. Ibid. back
  18. ACYF, Child Maltreatment 2005, Chapter 2. back
  19. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005, Table 2-1. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  20. ACYF, Child Maltreatment 2005, Summary. back
  21. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005, Table 3-2. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  22. Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005, Chapter 6. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  23. ACYF, Child Maltreatment 2005, Table 4-1. back
  24. CWLA, Special tabulation of AFCARSback
  25. Ibid. back
  26. Ibid. back
  27. Ibid. back
  28. Ibid. back
  29. U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). Data profiles: Selected social characteristics, [2006 American Community Survey]. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  30. CWLA, Special tabulation of AFCARSback
  31. Ibid. back
  32. U.S. Census Bureau. (2007) Historical poverty tables: Number of families below the poverty level and poverty rate, [Table 13, Current Population Survey]. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  33. Administration for Children and Families. (2007). Caseload data. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  34. Administration for Children and Families. (2007). Caseload data, TANF families through June 2007. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  35. Administration for Children and Families. (2007). Financial overview, FY2005 and FY2006. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  36. Administration on Children and Families, Child Care Bureau. (2007). FY 2005 CCDF data tables: Average monthly adjusted number of families and children served. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  37. Administration for Children and Families. (2007). Head Start program fact sheets. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  38. Ewen, D., & Matthews, H. (2007). Title I and early childhood programs: A look at investments in the NCLB era, [Child Care and Early Education Series, October 2007, No. 2]. Available online. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy. back
  39. Ibid. back
  40. Schulman, K., & Blank, H. (2007). State child care assistance policies 2007: Some steps forward, more progress needed. Available online. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center. back
  41. Ibid. back
  42. Ibid. back
  43. Ibid. back
  44. Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.A., & Ventura, S.J. (2007). Births: Preliminary data for 2005, [National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 55 No. 11]. Available online. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. back
  45. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids count, [State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Low-birthweight babies: Number: 2004]. Available online. Baltimore, MD: Author. back
  46. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids count, [State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Infant mortality: Number: 2004]. Available online. Baltimore, MD: Author. back
  47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2007). HIV/AIDS Surveillance report, Vol. 17, revised June 2007: Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and dependent areas, 2005. Available online. Atlanta, GA: Author. back
  48. Huang, L.N. (2004). Transforming mental health care for children and families, [Networks. Special Edition, Volume 8, Issues 3 & 4]. Available online. Alexandria, VA: National Technical Assistance Center for State Mental Health Planning. back
  49. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA). (2007). Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings [Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-32, DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4293]. Available online. Rockville, MD: Author. back
  50. Huang. Transforming mental health care for children and familiesback
  51. American Association of Suicidology. (2007). United States suicide statistics: Year 2004 official final data on suicide in the United States. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  52. National Institute of Mental Health. (June). National comorbidity survey replication [NCS-R]. Available online. Rockville, MD: Author. back
  53. U.S. Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the surgeon general's conference on children's mental health: A national action agenda. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  54. Landsverk, J.A., Burns, B.A., Stambaugh, L.F., & Rolls Reutz, J.A. (2006). Mental health care for children and adolescents: A review of the literature. Available online. Seattle, WA: Casey Family Programs. back
  55. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2005). Facts for families: Foster care (no. 64). Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  56. Pecora, P., Kessler, R., Williams, J., O'Brien, K., Downs, A.C., English, D., White, J., Hiripi, E., White, C.R., Wiggins, T., & Holmes, K. (2005). Improving family foster care: Findings from the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study. Available online. Seattle, WA: Casey Family Programs. back
  57. Burns, B.J., Phillips, S.D., Wagner, H.R., Barth, R.P., Kolko, D.J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 960-970. back
  58. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). (2007). FFY 2004 Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) annual summary file. Available online. Washington, DC: HHS. back
  59. Ibid. back
  60. Geen, R., Sommers, A.S., & Cohen, M. (2005). Medicaid spending on foster children. Available online. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  61. Ibid. back
  62. Rubin, D.M., Alessandrini, E.A., Feudtner, C., Mandell, D.S., Localio, A.R., and Hadley, T. (2004). Placement stability and mental health costs for children in foster care. Pediatrics, 113(5), 1336-1341. Available online. back
  63. SAMSHA, Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findingsback
  64. Ibid. back
  65. Rubenstein, G. (2003). Safe and sound: Models for collaboration between the child welfare & addiction treatment systems. Available online. New York: The Legal Action Center of the Arthur Liman Policy Institute. back
  66. Young, N.K., Nakashian, M., Yeh, S., & Amatetti, S. (2007). Screening and assessment for family engagement, retention, and recovery (SAFERR), [DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 07-4261]. Available online. Rockville, MD: SAMSHA. back
  67. National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research. (2001). Current trends in child abuse prevention, reporting, and fatalities: The 1999 fifty state survey. Chicago: Prevent Child Abuse America. back
  68. HHS. (1999). Blending perspectives and building common ground: A report to Congress on substance abuse and child protection. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  69. National Association of Counties. (2007). The Meth epidemic: The changing demographics of methamphetamine. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  70. Office of National Drug Control Policy (2005). Drug endangered children. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  71. CWLA, Special tabulation of AFCARSback
  72. Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2007). Kids count, [State Level Data Online: Comparisons by Topic: Teens who are high school dropouts 2001-2005]. Available online. Baltimore, MD: Author. back
  73. Ibid. back
  74. SAMSHA, Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findingsback
  75. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). WISQARS injury mortality reports, 1999 - 2004. Available online. Washington, DC: CDC. back
  76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). MMWR Weekly: Suicide trends among youths and young adults aged 10-24 years, United States, 1990-2004. Available online. Atlanta, GA: Author. back
  77. Goodenow, C. (2003). Violence-related experiences of sexual minority youth: Looking at data from the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995-2001. Springfield: Massachusetts Department of Education. back
  78. Pecora et al., Improving family foster care: Findings from the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Studyback
  79. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, WISQARS injury mortality reports, 1999 - 2004back
  80. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Crime in the United States 2006, [Table 38]. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  81. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2003). Census of juveniles in residential placement databook. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  82. CWLA, Special tabulation of AFCARS; Scarcella, C.A., Bess, R., Zielewski, E.H., & Geen, R. (2004). The cost of protecting vulnerable children V: Understanding state variation in child welfare financing. Available online. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. back
  83. Scarcella et al., The cost of protecting vulnerable children V: Understanding state variation in child welfare financingback
  84. CWLA, Special tabulation of AFCARSback
  85. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). (2003). Child welfare: HHS could plan a greater role in helping child welfare agencies recruit and retain staff. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back back
  86. Ibid. back
  87. National Data Analysis System (NDAS). (March 2007). Issue brief: Child welfare workforce. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  88. CWLA. (1999). CWLA standards of excellence of child welfare services. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  89. NDAS, Issue brief: Child welfare workforceback
  90. American Public Human Services Association. (2005). Report from the 2004 Child Welfare Workforce Survey. State agency findings. Available online. Washington, DC: Author. back
  91. Ibid. back
  92. GAO, Child welfare: HHS could plan a greater role in helping child welfare agencies recruit and retain staffback




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