CWLA 2005 Children's Legislative Agenda
Social Services Block Grant (Title XX)
- Support efforts to restore full funding of the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG, Title XX of the Social Security Act).
In 1981, SSBG was converted from a matching entitlement fund to a capped federal block grant to states. States were free to decide whom to serve and what services to provide. As a capped entitlement, SSBG funding was intended to bypass the annual appropriations process and automatically receive the level set in the statute--$2.8 billion. Congress, however, has set funding for SSBG below the authorized capped level for the past several years. Funding for SSBG was lowered to $1.9 billion in FY 1999, and to $1.7 billion in FY 2000, where it has remained.
- SSBG is a major source of federal funding to address the needs of vulnerable children and youth. SSBG represented 12% of federal funding for child welfare services in state fiscal year 2002. 1 SSBG frequently serves as a link between government funding and private and charitable sources. SSBG funds supplement local and charitable efforts by providing federal dollars to fill a gap local efforts cannot meet.
Although states can use SSBG funds for an array of social services, such as child care or services for the aging, states spend these funds on child welfare services more than any other service area. In federal FY 2002, child protection and child foster care services each accounted for 22% of SSBG expenditures. Forty states used SSBG funds to address child protection services; 37 used SSBG to fund foster care.
In both 2003 and 2004, Congress considered several proposals to increase SSBG funding. The Senate adopted the CARE Act, which, in addition to changing tax law to encourage charitable giving, would have restored SSBG funding to $2.8 billion and would have restored states' ability to transfer 10% of their block grant funding from Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) to SSBG.
The House-passed version of the CARE Act did not include increased SSBG funding. The differences between the House and Senate versions of the CARE Act were never resolved, so the legislation was never finalized. In 2005, a restoration of SSBG may again be considered as part of legislation to support charitable organizations, or as part of TANF reauthorization.
States can use SSBG to fund 29 different services to prevent or remedy neglect or abuse of children or adults, achieve or maintain economic self-support, reduce unnecessary institutionalization, achieve or maintain independence, and secure referral and screening for appropriate institutional care.
In FY 2002, states spent more than $788 million in SSBG funds on services to children and youth, including adoption, foster care, child protection, independent living, and residential services.
- In 2002, 31 states used $40 million in SSBG funds to assist in the adoption of children. 2
- Adoption services are designed to facilitate timely placements of children with adoptive families. Services include counseling for birthparents, recruitment of adoptive homes, and pre- and postplacement training and counseling.
- Of the 532,000 children in foster care in 2002, 129,000 had a goal of adoption; 52,000 children were adopted from foster care in 2002. 3
- In 2002, 37 states used nearly $263 million in SSBG funds for foster care services to more than 320,000 children. That year, 532,000 children were in foster care. 4
- States use SSBG to pay foster care costs for the board and care of children not eligible for federal Title IV-E foster care assistance. Foster care services are designed to secure living arrangements for children or youth who have been abused and neglected and cannot live at home. These children and youth may live with foster care families, including relatives; in group homes, emergency shelters, residential facilities, or preadoptive homes; or in supervised independent-living arrangements. Services include needs assessments, case planning, case management, medical care, child counseling, parent or foster parent counseling, and recruitment of foster families.
- In FY 2002, 40 states used more than $329 million in SSBG funds to protect children from abuse and neglect. In 2002, state and local child protective service agencies received an estimated 3,193,000 reports of child abuse and neglect. 5
- Child protective services are designed to prevent or remedy the further abuse, neglect, or exploitation of children who may have experienced physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, and negligent treatment or maltreatment. Services include investigation, medical care, emergency shelter, case planning, child counseling, family counseling, legal assistance, and placement in foster care.
- In FY 2002, 17 states used $20 million in SSBG funds to provide independent and transitional living services to more than 6,200 youth. Supervised independent and post-foster care services for youth are designed to help older youth in foster care or homeless youth make the transition to independence. Services include educational assistance, employment training, training in daily life skills, and housing assistance. 6
Special Services for Youth at Risk
- In FY 2002, $118 million in SSBG funds supported residential treatment to more than 31,000 youth in 23 states. Residential treatment services provide short-term residential care and comprehensive treatment for children who cannot be cared for at home or in foster care and who need specialized services. Services include psychological evaluations, alcohol and drug treatment, family counseling, individual counseling, remedial education, vocational training, case management, and supervised recreation. 7
- In FY 2002, 19 states used $16 million in SSBG funds to help more than 166,000 youth at risk. Support for youth at risk is often fragmented between the juvenile justice, mental health, and child welfare systems. SSBG allows states to cut across different systems and provide youth the help they need. Services are targeted at youth who are, or who may become, involved with the juvenile justice system, and their families. Designed to enhance family functioning and increase positive youth development, services include counseling, residential services, and medical care. 8
- Bess, R.; Scarcella-Andrews, C.; Jantz, A.; Zielewski, E.; Warner, L, & Geen, R. (2004). The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children IV: How Child Welfare Funding Fared During the Recession (Assessing the New Federalism Occasional Paper). Retrieved online, January 10, 2005. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
- Administration for Children and Families (ACF). (2002). SSBG 2002: Annual report on Expenditures and Recipients, 2002. Retrieved online, January 10, 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
U.S. Children's Bureau. (2003). AFCARS Report #8: Preliminary Estimates published March 2003. Retrieved online, January 4, 2005. Washington, DC: HHS.
U.S. Children's Bureau. (2004). Child Maltreatment 2002: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Retrieved online, January 9, 2005. Washington, DC: HHS.
- ACF, SSBG 2002.
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